Nursing test banks blog

Find the latest articles and information by nursingtesthelper

Check out some of these cool links below, we are glad that you are looking at our blog. We plan on updating our blog regularly so nursing students like yourself can learn more. If you have any questions regarding this site or a nursing test bank, please be sure to contact us or read through some of our support articles, faq and blogs.

Chapter 7 Middle Childhood

 

 

Section 1 Physical Development

 

Test Item File

 

Difficulty

1=Easy; 2=Moderate; 3=Difficult

 

Learning Objective number refers to the textbook’s learning objectives.

 

MDL Parallel Question ID refers to the correlating question found in MyDevelopmentLab. For your convenience, the MyDevelopmentLab items for this chapter are included in this document after the Test Item File.

Pre=Pre-Test

Post=Post-Test

CE=Chapter Exam

QR=Quick Review

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. During middle childhood, children become ____ susceptible to disease, ____ vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition, and ____ likely to have accidents that result in injury or death.
  2. less; less; less

Correct. Globally speaking, middle childhood is a time of greater physical stability and individuals during this time period are less likely to die due to malnutrition disease and accidents.

  1. less; less; more

Incorrect. Middle childhood is an exceptionally healthy time of life, as children become less susceptible to disease, less vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition, and less likely to have accidents that result in injury or death.

  1. less; more; more
  2. more; more; more

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 286

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  56     a= 56  b= 38  c= 6  d= 0      r = .52

 

  1. In middle childhood physical growth continues at a slow but steady pace. How many inches per year does the average child gain in height during this time?
  2. 2 to 3 inches
  3. 5 to 6 inches
  4. 8 to 9 inches
  5. 11 to 12 inches

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 286

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.1

 

  1. In middle childhood physical growth continues at a slow but steady pace. How many pounds per year does the average child gain in weight during this time?
  2. 2 to 4 pounds
  3. 5 to 7 pounds
  4. 7 to 9 pounds
  5. 10 to 12 pounds

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 286

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.1

 

  1. During which of the following time periods of life are boys and girls most likely to be the slimmest?
  2. infancy
  3. middle childhood
  4. adolescents
  5. late childhood

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 286

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.1.1

% correct  81     a= 0  b= 81  c= 13  d= 6      r = .79

 

  1. What is the measure of the ratio of weight to height called?
  2. growth index
  3. body fat index
  4. body mass index
  5. W-H index

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 286

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.1.1

 

  1. ____ is a measure of the ratio of weight to height.
  2. Body growth scale
  3. Body mass index
  4. Progressive development index
  5. Physiological rating

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 286

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Children during middle childhood can run faster and longer. What allows children to achieve these results during this time in the lifespan?
  2. The heart grows 80% larger during this time.

Incorrect. Lung capacity leads to better endurance during this time in the lifespan.

  1. Competition leads to increased willingness to put forth more effort.
  2. Cognitive desire increases.
  3. Lung capacity expands.

Correct. Lung capacity leads to better endurance during this time in the lifespan.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 286

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When he was 6 years old, Perry used to chase his older brother, Marcus, in the backyard, but got winded sooner than Marcus did. Now that Perry is a 9-year-old, he can run faster and longer than ever before and has less trouble keeping up with Marcus’s pace. This is a result of increased ____ in middle childhood.
  2. lung capacity

Correct. Beyond physical and neurological growth, increased lung capacity helps Perry to run faster.

  1. fine motor movement

Incorrect. Children run faster and longer over the course of middle childhood, as lung capacity expands.

  1. flexibility
  2. myopic vision

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 286

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.2

 

  1. From ages 6 to 12 years, how many primary teeth do children lose?
  2. a quarter of them
  3. half of them
  4. three-quarters
  5. all of them

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 286

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. How many primary teeth do children have?
  2. 10
  3. 20
  4. 30
  5. 40

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 286

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your sister has an 8-year-old who seems to be losing his teeth at a rapid pace. This is her first child and she is concerned. What would you tell her? From age 6 to 12 years, children ____.
  2. lose all of their primary teeth—this is normal

Correct. From age 6 to 12, children lose all 20 of their primary teeth and new, permanent teeth replace them.

  1. lose some of their teeth, but at a very slow rate
  2. do not lose any teeth—she needs to consult a dentist immediately

Incorrect. From age 6 to 12, children lose all 20 of their primary teeth and new, permanent teeth replace them.

  1. only lose the front few teeth

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 286

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Hearing improves in middle childhood because the tube in the inner ear that is often the site of ear infections in toddlerhood and early childhood has now matured to be longer and narrower than it was before. How does this help with ear infections?
  2. The tympanic membrane becomes less permeable.
  3. It allows the immune system to concentrate its efforts on this area.
  4. Children develop immunity to the bacteria that cause ear infections during this time.

Incorrect. Because the tube in the inner ear is longer and narrower than it was before, less fluid containing bacteria is transferred from the mouth to the ear, which in turn makes inner ear infections less likely.

  1. Less bacteria-containing fluid flows from the mouth to the ear.

Correct. Because the tube in the inner ear is longer and narrower than it was before, less fluid containing bacteria is transferred from the mouth to the ear, which in turn makes inner ear infections less likely.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 287

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 4-year-old niece has inner ear infections fairly often. What is a bit of good news that you could tell her mother? In middle childhood ____.
  2. she will have more ear infections, but the infections build a stronger immune system
  3. she will have fewer ear infections, and the earlier infections might lead to improved hearing later
  4. changes in the ear will help children become better listeners

Incorrect. Because the tube in the inner ear is longer and narrower than it was before, less fluid containing bacteria is transferred from the mouth to the ear, which in turn makes inner ear infections less likely.

  1. changes in the ear will result in fewer ear infections

Correct. Because the tube in the inner ear is longer and narrower than it was before, less fluid containing bacteria is transferred from the mouth to the ear, which in turn makes inner ear infections less likely.

Answer D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 287

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.2

 

  1. What terms describes nearsightedness?
  2. myopia
  3. presbyscusis
  4. hyperopia
  5. protanopia

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.1.2, CE 7.1.3

 

  1. Myopia is also known as ____.
  2. farsightedness
  3. nearsightedness
  4. binocular vision
  5. monocular vision

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.1.2

 

  1. Your sister came home from a pediatrician’s visit with your 9-year-old nephew and was very worried because the doctor told her that your nephew has myopia. She was also very unhappy because the pediatrician failed to give her medication to treat it. What would you tell her about myopia?
  2. It simply means nearsightedness.

Correct. Myopia is nearsightedness.

  1. It is an intense fungal infection of the sclera.
  2. It results in permanent retinal damage.

Incorrect. Myopia is nearsightedness.

  1. It is a disease of the eye that occurs only in children with cancer.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is a factor that can lead to children developing nearsightedness?
  2. reading

Correct. Reading, writing, and using computers often are factors that can lead to children developing myopia.

  1. watching movies

Incorrect. Reading, writing, and using computers often are factors that can lead to children developing myopia.

  1. bird watching
  2. batting at the batting cage

Answer A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your sister is happy that your niece loves to read and she reads constantly. What is a potential problem that can occur as a function of reading?
  2. hyperopia

Incorrect. Reading is associated with nearsightedness—myopia.

  1. protanopia
  2. myopia

Correct. Reading is associated with nearsightedness—myopia.

  1. retinopathy

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Myopia is more likely to occur in _____ as it is positively correlated with _____.
  2. developed countries; reading, writing, and using computers

Correct. The rate of nearsightedness is higher in developed countries, and the problem is more likely to occur when the rate of reading, writing, and the use of computers increases.

  1. developing countries; reading, writing, and using computers

Incorrect. Myopia is a problem that is more likely to occur in developed countries than in developing countries. The more children read, write, and use computers, the more likely they are to develop myopia.

  1. developed countries; hunting, farming, and gathering
  2. developing countries; hunting, farming, and gathering

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 287

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  88     a= 88  b= 0  c= 0  d= 13      r = .55

 

  1. Which of the following pairs has the highest concordance rate for myopia?
  2. monozygotic twins in a developed nation

Correct. Myopia being partly genetic and partly environmental, monozygotic twins in a developed nation are more likely to have a closer concordance rate.

  1. monozygotic twins in a developing nation
  2. dizygotic twins in a developed nation
  3. dizygotic twins in a developing nation

Incorrect. Myopia is a problem that is more likely to occur in developing countries than in developing countries, and in MZ twins more than DZ twins since it is also partly genetic.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 287

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.4

 

  1. According to Mutti et al. (2002), what percentage of children in developed countries need glasses by the end of middle childhood?
  2. 15%
  3. 25%
  4. 35%
  5. 45%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When are children less vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition?
  2. infancy
  3. early childhood
  4. middle childhood
  5. adolescence

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. As compared to earlier times, physical development during middle childhood is best described as ____.
  2. “Bodies are stronger and immune systems are better developed.”

Correct. Body strength and a better developed immune system contribute to a higher rate of survival during middle childhood.

  1. “Bodies are much more susceptible to disease and illness.”
  2. “Bodies are much pudgier with a higher body mass index.”
  3. “Bodies are much weaker and immune systems are stressed and taxed.”

Incorrect. In middle childhood, bodies are stronger and more resilient, and immune systems are better developed.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.3

% correct  100     a= 100  b= 0  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. Barrett and Frank (1987) studied children from Guatemala who were classified as having high nutrient levels or low nutrient levels. Compared to children with low nutrient levels, children with high nutrient levels were ____.
  2. more likely to persist in a frustrating situation

Correct. Children who were classified in early childhood as having high nutrient levels were more likely than children with low nutrient levels to explore new environments in middle childhood and to persist in a frustrating situation. They were also more energetic, less anxious, and showed more positive emotion.

  1. likely to cling to their mothers more

Incorrect. Children who were classified in early childhood as having high nutrient levels were more likely than children with low nutrient levels to explore new environments in middle childhood and to persist in a frustrating situation. They were also more energetic, less anxious, and showed more positive emotion.

  1. significantly more anxious
  2. less likely to be energetic

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.1.3

 

  1. In a Guatemalan study that examined nutrition and development, children who were classified as having ____ were more likely than children with ____ to explore new environments in middle childhood and persist in a frustrating situation.
  2. low body mass index; high body mass index
  3. high body mass index; low body mass index

Incorrect. Children who were classified in early childhood as having high nutrient levels were more likely than children with low nutrient levels to explore new environments in middle childhood and to persist in a frustrating situation.

  1. low nutrient levels; high nutrient levels
  2. high nutrient levels; low nutrient levels

Correct. From this study it was clear that higher nutritional levels led to a greater degree of exploration and positive emotions; physiological development correlates to stronger cognitive and social measures.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Internationally, children aged 6 to 10 years are considered to be overweight if ____.
  2. they eat more than 2,000 calories a day
  3. fail to exercise for more than 30 minutes per day
  4. have a BMI that exceeds 18
  5. have 20% or more body fat

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287–288

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.5, QR 7.1.3

 

 

  1. Internationally, children aged 6 to 10 years are considered to be obese if ____.
  2. they eat more than 4,000 calories a day
  3. fail to exercise for more than 10 minutes per day
  4. have a BMI that exceeds 21
  5. have 40% or more body fat

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287–288

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your little brother, who is 8 years old, has gained a lot of weight over the past couple of years and your parents are concerned. At his annual physical exam, the doctor indicated that he had a BMI of 23. This means that your brother ____.
  2. is obese

Correct. A BMI of 23 for children this age indicates obesity.

  1. is overweight

Incorrect. A BMI of 23 for children this age indicates obesity.

  1. is of normal weight
  2. is actually underweight for his age

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287–288

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Internationally, children ages 6 to 10 are considered to be ____ if their BMI exceeds 18 and ____ if their BMI exceeds 21.
  2. overweight; obese
  3. obese; overweight
  4. underweight; emaciated
  5. emaciated; underweight

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 287–288

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Across countries, rates of overweight and obesity are highest in the most ____ regions and lowest in the ____ regions.
  2. affluent; poorest
  3. poorest; affluent
  4. largest; smallest
  5. smallest; largest

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  75     a= 75  b= 0  c= 19  d=  6     r = .25

 

  1. In the U.S., rates of overweight and obesity are higher in ____.
  2. ethnic minority groups
  3. high income families
  4. first-generation families
  5. White American families

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following changes is the largest contributor to the increased rate of overweight and obese children?
  2. dietary change
  3. genetic change
  4. chromosomal change
  5. biological change

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 288

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.6

 

  1. You are a single parent of two children who are 7 and 9 years old. You have noticed that both of them are starting to look like they are gaining weight. According to the text, what is the most important thing that you can do to insure that they will not become overweight or obese?
  2. prepare healthy foods for meals

Correct. Rates of overweight and obesity are rising because more and more parents have become less likely to prepare meals at home and more likely to buy meals away from home, especially “fast foods” that are high in fat content.

  1. never let them eat desserts

Incorrect. Rates of overweight and obesity are rising because more and more parents have become less likely to prepare meals at home and more likely to buy meals away from home, especially “fast foods” that are high in fat content.

  1. increase their activity levels
  2. allow them to snack while playing video games

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.4

 

  1. As a contributor to the ____ rate of obesity, over recent decades people have become ____ likely to prepare meals at home and ____ likely to buy meals away from home.
  2. increased; less; more

Correct. The rate of obesity has increased; dietary behaviors such as eating out have been isolated as a contributing factor

  1. increased; more; less

Incorrect. The most important contribution to the rise in childhood obesity is the change in diets. Over recent decades people have become less likely to prepare meals at home and more likely to buy meals away from home, especially “fast foods” that are high in fat content.

  1. decreased; less; more
  2. decreased; more; less

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Why are the rates of overweight and obese children in developing countries rising?
  2. There is a worldwide shortage of protein.

Incorrect. Rates of overweight and obesity are rising in the populations of developing countries in part because their diets are becoming more like the diets of people in developed countries—fewer healthy, home-cooked meals and more “fast foods” that are high in fat content.

  1. Their children are becoming lazy.
  2. Their diets are becoming more like the diets of developed countries.

Correct. Rates of overweight and obesity are rising in the populations of developing countries in part because their diets are becoming more like the diets of people in developed countries—fewer healthy, home-cooked meals and more “fast foods” that are high in fat content.

  1. They are also acquiring the technology to play games on the Internet for hours.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.1.4

 

  1. Your roommate and you are having a discussion of the “Westernization” of many developing countries. You are concerned about the ill effects of some of Western culture. In terms of healthy weight of children in developing countries, why would you be concerned about the potential changes in their diets that can come with Westernization? Children in developing countries ____.
  2. can now get pre-packaged Western foods that contain precisely the nutrients that they require

Incorrect. Rates of overweight and obesity are rising in the populations of developing countries in part because their diets are becoming more like the diets of people in developed countries—fewer healthy, home-cooked meals and more “fast foods” high in fat content.

  1. require that their diets contain fluoride because of the great risk of tooth decay
  2. need extra calories to be healthy and Western diets are not sufficient
  3. are eating more unhealthy foods as a result of Western diets

Correct. Rates of overweight and obesity are rising in the populations of developing countries in part because their diets are becoming more like the diets of people in developed countries—fewer healthy, home-cooked meals and more “fast foods” high in fat content.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In a longitudinal study that followed a sample of American children from age 4 to 11, TV-watching predicted gains in ____.
  2. body fat
  3. academic scores
  4. cognitive ability
  5. socioemotional maturity

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 288

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.7

% correct 100      a= 100  b= 0  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. In a longitudinal study, Proctor et al. (2003) found that children who watched at least three hours of television a day ____.
  2. gained 40% more body fat than those who watched less than 1.5 hours a day

Correct. The study found that children who watched at least three hours of television a day gained 40% more body fat than children who watched less than 1.5 hours a day.

  1. earned better grades than those who watched less than 1.5 hours a day

Incorrect. The study found that children who watched at least three hours of television a day gained 40% more body fat than children who watched less than 1.5 hours a day.

  1. increased their reaction time scores by 35% compared to children who watched less than 1.5 hours a day
  2. were more likely to develop Type II diabetes than children who watched less than 1.5 hours a day

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.1.4

 

  1. Your brother was happy to report to you that your 7-year-old niece and 8-year-old nephew both watch about three hours of educational television per day. He is convinced that this is a great way for his children to learn additional information that is not presented in school. What do you think? Your niece and nephew are likely to ____.
  2. develop technical skills that other children their ages do not possess
  3. skip a grade level soon

Incorrect: Proctor et al. found that children who watched at least three hours of television a day gained 40% more body fat than children who watched less than 1.5 hours a day.

  1. be on their way to becoming overweight or obese

Correct. Proctor et al. found that children who watched at least three hours of television a day gained 40% more body fat than children who watched less than 1.5 hours a day.

  1. be two of the smartest children at their schools

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In a longitudinal study that followed a sample of American children from age 4 to 11, TV watching predicted gains in body fat. The study found that these were ____.
  2. positively correlated—as TV consumption increased, body fat increased

Correct. The longitudinal study by Roberts and Foehr, 2004 illustrated a positive correlation between TV consumption and body fat.

  1. negatively correlated—as TV consumption increased, body fat decreased
  2. uncorrelated—there is no relationship between TV consumption and body fat
  3. neutrally correlated—as TV consumption increased, body fat remained the same

Incorrect. The study showed that children who watched at least 3 hours of TV a day gained 40% more body fat than children who watched less than 1.5 hours a day.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. As children spend more time watching TV they are more likely to be____ and spend less time ____.
  2. overweight or obese; exercising

Correct. TV consumption is negatively correlated with exercise.

  1. underweight or thin; using a computer
  2. of average weight; reading

Incorrect. Studies have shown that the amount of television watching is positively correlated to childhood obesity and negatively correlated with the amount of time spent in physical exercise.

  1. overweight or underweight; in school

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Why are rates of overweight and obese children especially high among African American and Latino children?
  2. they have no place to play outside
  3. they are genetically more likely to become overweight and obese

Incorrect: These children watch more television than other groups. Amount of time viewing television is related to gaining body fat.

  1. their mothers are less likely to prepare nutritious meals
  2. they tend to watch the most television per day

Correct. These children watch more television than other groups. Amount of time viewing television is related to gaining body fat.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 288

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.5

 

  1. What has research discovered regarding childhood obesity in children who were adopted? Adopted children ____.
  2. have BMIs that are more similar to their adoptive parents
  3. are likely to have the same interest in sedentary games as their biological parents

Incorrect. Adopted children tend to have BMIs that are closer to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents.

  1. crave sweets and fats like their biological parents
  2. have BMIs that are closer to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents

Correct. Adopted children tend to have BMIs that are closer to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 289

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.8

 

  1. Adopted children tend to have a ____ that is closer to their ____ than to their ____.
  2. BMI; biological parents; adoptive parents

Correct. Genetics has been shown to be contributor to obesity; the closer the genetic relationship, the greater the similarity.

  1. BMI; adoptive parents; biological parents

Incorrect. Genetics make a contribution to obesity, as adopted children tend to have BMIs that are closer to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents.

  1. blood glucose level; biological parents; adoptive parents
  2. blood glucose level; adoptive parents; biological parents

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 289

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What can be said regarding the relationship between genetics and obesity?
  2. Genetics provides only a risk for overweight and obesity, not a definite destiny.

Correct. Genetics cannot explain recent rises in obesity rates, as genetics provide only a risk for overweight and obesity, not a definite destiny.

  1. Genetics is destiny. If an individual has the FTO gene, he or she will become obese.

Incorrect. Genetics cannot explain recent rises in obesity rates, as genetics provide only a risk for overweight and obesity, not a definite destiny.

  1. There really is no genetic relationship, only environment.
  2. Eating sweets and carbs changes chromosome so that the individual’s offspring will have difficulties with obesity.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 289

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.1.5, Pre 7.1.5

 

  1. You have a friend whose parents are obese. Since he graduated from college he has devoted a significant amount of his efforts to doing well in his new job, leaving him with less time to exercise and prepare healthy meals. Consequently, he has gained weight. He is concerned that since he must have the FTO gene, that he is doomed to be obese like his parents are. What would you tell him?
  2. Genetics provides only a risk for overweight and obesity, not a definite destiny. If he eats nutritious meals and begins to exercise, he should lose the weight.

Correct. Recent research has identified a specific gene, called FTO, that sharply increases children’s risk for obesity. However, genetics provide only a risk for overweight and obesity, not a definite destiny.

  1. Genetics is destiny. He might as well not worry about becoming obese since he is definitely going to be obese no matter what he does.

Incorrect. Recent research has identified a specific gene, called FTO, that sharply increases children’s risk for obesity. However, genetics provide only a risk for overweight and obesity, not a definite destiny.

  1. His weight gain has nothing to do with his parents. There really is no genetic relationship.
  2. His parents must have eaten quite a bit of sweets and carbs before he was conceived and he now has the genes for obesity.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 289

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A compelling study of the Pima Indians in Arizona and Mexico was conducted. The Pima Indians who live in Mexico continue to eat a diet that is high in vegetables and low in fat and sugars, while the Pima Indians who live in Arizona eat more like mainstream Americans. Which of the following best describes the result of this study?
  2. The Mexican Pima Indians have a BMI that is 80% higher than the American Pima Indians.

Incorrect. The American Pima Indians have an average BMI that is 50% higher than their counterparts in Mexico.

  1. The Mexican and American Pima Indians have equal BMIs.
  2. The American Pima Indians have an average BMI that is 50% higher than the Mexican Pima Indians.

Correct. The American Pima Indians have an average BMI that is 50% higher than their counterparts in Mexico.

  1. The study was a hoax to argue that eating a traditional diet was healthier, which is not true.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 289

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Socially, being obese ____ the likelihood that a child will be socially ____ and the object of ____ by peers.
  2. decreases; accepted; envy

Incorrect. Being obese increases the likelihood that a child will be socially excluded and the object of ridicule by peers.

  1. decreases; rejected; ridicule
  2. increases; included; envy
  3. increases; excluded; ridicule

Correct. Obese children tend to have a lower self-worth and more often are  the target of other children’s teasing.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 289

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 85      a= 0  b= 8  c= 8  d= 85      r = .51

 

  1. By middle childhood, obesity is a risk factor for ____.
  2. not being popular in middle school
  3. ADHD, primarily hyperactivity-impulsivity type
  4. schizophrenia
  5. a variety of emotional and behavior problems

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 289

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.9

% correct  63     a= 6  b= 13  c= 19  d= 63     r = .57

  1. Your roommate believes that overweight children are happy children. What is the truth about this myth?
  2. Not only are they the happiest, they have the most friends.

Incorrect. Being obese increases the likelihood that a child will be socially excluded and the object of ridicule by peers. By middle childhood obesity is a risk factor for a variety of emotional and behavioral problems.

  1. Obese children, not overweight children, are the happiest children in most cultures.
  2. Overweight children are at risk for a variety of emotional and behavior problems.

Correct. Being obese increases the likelihood that a child will be socially excluded and the object of ridicule by peers. By middle childhood obesity is a risk factor for a variety of emotional and behavioral problems.

  1. Although overweight children tend to be happier compared to their peers, this is only true in adolescence, not earlier in childhood.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 289

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Even in middle childhood, obesity can result in ____.
  2. diabetes
  3. nephrosis
  4. stroke
  5. cardiac arrest

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 289

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.6

 

  1. What percentage of children remain obese in adulthood?
  2. 20%
  3. 40%
  4. 60%
  5. 80%

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 289

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What are some of the health problems that obese adults have?
  2. high blood pressure, heart attacks, and cancer
  3. insomnia, incontinence, and bowel obstruction
  4. halitosis, male pattern baldness, and trichophyton
  5. chronic fever, hunger, and flatulence

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 289

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.10

 

  1. Your brother and sister-in-law do not like to cook and neither one of them seems to have a very good understanding of nutrition. Their 9-year-old son has a BMI of 24, but they are not concerned because they feel that he will simply outgrow being overweight. Why should they be more concerned? As adults, overweight and obese individuals ____.
  2. spend a considerable amount of their budget on fast food
  3. are more likely to have high blood pressure, heart attacks, and cancer

Correct. The major risk factors for adults who are overweight or obese are high blood pressure, heart attacks, and cancer.

  1. are more likely to have ADHD

Incorrect. The major risk factors for adults who are overweight or obese are high blood pressure, heart attacks, and cancer.

  1. to be married to their jobs and ignore their families

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 289

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.1.6

% correct  100     a= 0  b= 100  c= 0  d= 0      r = .00

 

  1. _____ of parents of obese children view their children as overweight.
  2. 90 to 95%
  3. 80 to 85%
  4. 70 to 75%
  5. Less than 50%

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 289

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In developed and developing countries, middle childhood is ____.
  2. the most dangerous period of life
  3. the safest and healthiest time of life
  4. a time when there is a spike in injury due to accidents
  5. equal in safety to infancy and early childhood

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 289

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

 

  1. Your sister constantly worries about your nephew, who is currently a toddler. She knows that this is a time of important physical and behavioral development and worries that every bump, bruise, or sniffle could negatively affect his future health and well being. What can you tell her as your nephew approaches middle childhood?
  2. It is the safest and healthiest time of life.

Correct. Middle childhood is in many ways the safest, healthiest time of life.

  1. She needs to be very careful because there is a spike in injury rates during this time.
  2. More children get sick and injured during this time than when they were younger.

Incorrect. Middle childhood is in many ways the safest, healthiest time of life.

  1. Most children suffer no illnesses or injuries during this time.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 289

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following stages of life has the lowest death rate?
  2. infancy
  3. late toddlerhood
  4. middle childhood
  5. early adolescence

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 289

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. During middle toddlerhood more children have received ____ and their _____ stronger, which contributes to a lower death rate.
  2. vitamin B; lungs are
  3. calcium; heart is

Incorrect. In both developed and developing countries, by middle childhood a great proportion of children have received vaccinations against diseases. Even children who have not received vaccinations are less susceptible to fatal diseases in middle childhood than they were earlier in their development because their natural immune systems have become stronger.

  1. immunizations; immune system is

Correct. In both developed and developing countries, by middle childhood a great proportion of children have received vaccinations against diseases. Even children who have not received vaccinations are less susceptible to fatal diseases in middle childhood than they were earlier in their development because their natural immune systems have become stronger.

  1. viral infections; muscles are

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 289

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.1.6

 

  1. In 1978 nearly 30% of children aged 5 to 10 years had dangerously elevated levels of lead in their blood, which can cause brain damage. What was the rate in 2001?
  2. 1%
  3. 11%
  4. 21%
  5. 31%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 290

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.7

 

  1. According to national U.S. studies, in 1978 nearly ____ of children ages 5-10 had dangerously elevated levels of lead in their blood, which can cause brain damage; by 2001, the rate had fallen to ____.
  2. 30%; 1%
  3. 40%; 5%
  4. 50%; 10%
  5. 60%; 15%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 290

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.1.7

 

  1. ____ is a chronic illness of the lungs characterized by wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
  2. Asthma
  3. Eczema
  4. Allergies
  5. Psoriasis

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 290

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.11

 

  1. An asthma attack can be triggered by ____
  2. an immunization
  3. exercise or emotional stress
  4. high levels of lead in gasoline
  5. a genetic predisposition to heart disease

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 290

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When are the rates of asthma the highest?
  2. infancy
  3. early childhood
  4. middle childhood
  5. adolescence

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 290

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your family has a history of asthma and allergies. Your brother is a smoker and he and his wife have a 6-year-old son. What do you need to tell him regarding smoking and asthma?
  2. If he wants his child to have asthma, keep smoking.

Correct. Having a parent who smokes is a risk factor for a child to develop asthma.

  1. Smoking will reduce the likelihood that his child will have asthma.
  2. Although many people think that there is a link between smoking and asthma, there is not.
  3. Children of smoking parents have been found to have unusually strong lung capacities.

Incorrect. Having a parent who smokes is a risk factor for a child to develop asthma.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 290

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is a risk factor associated with childhood asthma?
  2. postmaturity at birth
  3. high SES status
  4. parental smoking
  5. a BMI that is too low

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 290

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Why are there higher rates of asthma in developing countries than there used to be?
  2. air pollution

Correct. In developing countries, air pollution has become worse as a result of increased industrialization, and air pollution can trigger asthma.

  1. poor water quality

Incorrect. In developing countries, air pollution has become worse as a result of increased industrialization, and air pollution can trigger asthma.

  1. increased number of fast-food restaurants
  2. living in close proximity to animals in rural areas

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 290

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.1.7

 

  1. What ethnic group is especially likely to have childhood asthma?
  2. Asian Americans
  3. African Americans
  4. Hispanic Americans
  5. White Americans

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 290

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the most common cause of injury in middle childhood?
  2. sports-related injuries
  3. accidental poisoning
  4. bicycle accidents
  5. automobile accidents

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 290

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.8

 

  1. Improvements in _____ in middle childhood allow a child to stay steady on a bike without training wheels or walk on a board across a river.
  2. balance

Correct. Improved balance is 1 of many physical abilities that further develop during middle childhood.

  1. strength
  2. hand-eye coordination

Incorrect. From early to middle childhood, children’s balance improves, allowing them to stay steady on a bike without training wheels or walk on a board across a river.

  1. reaction time

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 291

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Agility is ____.
  2. synchronization of different body parts
  3. moving quickly and precisely
  4. a response to changing information
  5. the ability to manage equilibrium

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 291

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.12

 

  1. At age 7, Felix is a much better soccer player than he was at age 4. Not only is he a fast runner but he can dribble the soccer ball down the field by alternating right-foot, left-foot kicks. He can also fake out defenders by pretending to kick the ball with his right foot but actually using his left foot. Felix’s improvement in soccer illustrates growth in which of the following areas?
  2. balance
  3. agility

Correct. Agility is the ability to move quickly and precisely.

  1. reaction time

Incorrect. Agility is the ability to move quickly and precisely.

  1. strength

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 291

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.1.8

 

  1. Development in what allows children in middle childhood to respond rapidly to changing information, like hitting a tennis ball or catching a baseball?
  2. reaction time

Correct. Improvements in reaction time allow children to respond rapidly to changing information, for example when hitting a tennis ball over the net or when catching or hitting a baseball.

  1. eye-hand coordination

Incorrect. Improvements in reaction time allow children to respond rapidly to changing information, for example when hitting a tennis ball over the net or when catching or hitting a baseball.

  1. myelination
  2. muscular virility

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 291

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.1.8

 

  1. ____ is the ability to move quickly and precisely, whereas ____ is the response to changing information.
  2. Agility; reaction time
  3. Reaction time; agility
  4. Coordination; strength
  5. Strength; coordination

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 291

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States and Canada, what percentage of children between the ages of 5 and 14 are involved in organized sports?
  2. 10%
  3. 30%
  4. 50%
  5. 70%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 291

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.1.13

 

  1. In ____, about ____ of children are involved in organized sports at least once between the ages of 5 and 14.
  2. China and Taiwan; 1/4
  3. the U.S. and Canada; 1/2
  4. India and Pakistan; 3/4
  5. Nicaragua and Colombia; 1/2

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 291

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

 

  1. What percentage of American middle school children in 1969 participated in daily physical education?
  2. 80%
  3. 60%
  4. 40%
  5. 20%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 292

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States in 1969, 80% of children were involved in daily physical education programs. What was the percentage in 2005?
  2. 8%
  3. 24%
  4. 56%
  5. 80%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 292

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the U.S., the percentage of children involved in daily physical education programs during middle childhood decreased from ____ in 1969 to just ____ in 2005.
  2. 80%; 8%
  3. 70%; 7%
  4. 60%; 6%
  5. 50%; 5%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 292

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Not many 3- or 4-year-olds can ____ successfully, but nearly all ____-year-olds can.
  2. tie their shoe; 8–9
  3. kick a ball; 5–6
  4. pet a dog; 8–9
  5. run and jump; 6-7

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 292

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.10

 

  1. In many developing countries, children become valuable as factory workers in middle childhood because of their ____.
  2. abilities to perform gross motor tasks such threading a needle on a sewing machine

Incorrect. In many developing countries, children become valuable as factory workers in middle childhood because of their abilities to perform intricate fine motor skills such as weaving rugs.

  1. cognitive abilities to perform complex conceptual tasks such as designing products
  2. emotional stability because some adult factory employees are hot-tempered
  3. abilities to perform intricate fine motor tasks such as weaving rugs

Correct. Smaller, agile, and nimble fingers tend to be beneficial in the factories of developing nations.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 292

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.1.9

 

  1. Across cultures, advances in fine motor development are especially evident in two areas—what are they?
  2. throwing and catching
  3. drawing and writing
  4. jumping and hopping
  5. walking backwards and rolling

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 292

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.1.9, QR 7.1.10

 

  1. Which of the following fine motor tasks is within the appropriate developmental age range for a 6-year-old?
  2. writing the letters of the alphabet, their name, and numbers from 1 to 10

Correct. Fine motor skills of a 6-year-old have developed to a point to where they can write the alphabet, their name, and 1-10.

  1. writing complete sentences, reading a 2nd-grade level book, and spelling words such as “hippopotamus”
  2. running a 4-minute mile, jumping over hurdles, and dribbling a soccer ball
  3. writing in cursive, drawing in three-dimensional shapes, and using symbolism in storytelling

Incorrect. By age 6 most children are able to write the letters of the alphabet, their own names, and numbers from 1 to 10.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 293

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.1.9, CE 7.1.14

 

  1. 6-year-olds can ____, whereas 8-year-olds can ____.
  2. divide numbers in their head; add numbers in their head
  3. add numbers in their head; divide numbers in their head
  4. write in cursive; write letters of the alphabet

Incorrect. By age 6 most children are able to write the letters of the alphabet, their own names, and numbers from 1 to 10. By age 8 or 9 most children can learn to write in cursive.

  1. write letters of the alphabet; write in cursive

Correct. Fine motor skills have developed to a point to where they can a can write the alphabet; by age 8 it has developed to where they can write in cursive.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 293

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. By the end of middle childhood what abilities have nearly reached adult maturity?
  2. gross motor skills

Incorrect. By the end of middle childhood fine motor abilities have nearly reached adult maturity, whereas gross motor development will continue to advance for many years to come.

  1. psycho-motor skills
  2. vestibular-motor skills
  3. fine motor skills

Correct. By the end of middle childhood fine motor abilities have nearly reached adult maturity, whereas gross motor development will continue to advance for many years to come.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 293

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.1.10, CE 7.1.15

 

  1. Your brother was an All-American baseball shortstop. His 8-year-old son is not nearly as good at catching a baseball as your brother would like. He was hoping that your nephew would also be interested in and good at baseball. Although you think that your brother should support his son’s interests rather than have your nephew pursue what your brother wants him to do, what can you tell your brother about his son’s athletic abilities?
  2. Gross motor skills continue to develop for quite a while, he should be patient.

Correct. Gross motor development continues to advance for many years to come after middle childhood.

  1. His son is probably not going to be athletic. He is too clumsy.

Incorrect. Gross motor development continues to advance for many years to come after middle childhood.

  1. Perhaps your brother should enroll his son in gymnastics to help him improve his coordination.
  2. His son’s chance of being a great baseball player are doomed. Your nephew’s fine motor skills seem to be abnormal.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 293

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Generally, by the end of middle childhood the fine motor abilities have ____, whereas gross motor development ____.
  2. remained the same; has grown exponentially
  3. reached their pinnacle; grew very little

Incorrect. By the end of middle childhood fine motor abilities have nearly reached adult maturity, whereas gross motor development will continue to advance for many years to come.

  1. nearly reached adult maturity; will continue to advance for many years to come

Correct. By the end of middle childhood fine motor abilities have nearly reached adult maturity, whereas gross motor development will continue to advance for many years to come.

  1. tripled in strength; has declined rapidly.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 293

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What is myopia and what is one reason that it increases in middle childhood?

Answer: Myopia is nearsightedness. It is more common in developed countries and can be caused by tasks that require perceiving details up close, such as reading (on a computer and in books) and writing.

Page: 287

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Based on research, is there a sensitive period for long-term effects of malnutrition? Provide an example to support your response.

Answer: Yes, the sensitive period seems to be between the second trimester of pregnancy through age 3. This is based on findings in poor countries comparing those who were malnourished in early childhood to those who were not. The malnourished children scored lower on cognitive tests and were higher in anxiety.

Page: 287

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. There are many obvious environmental influences on obesity; is there any evidence for a genetic/biological explanation? Use research evidence to support your answer.

Answer: Yes, genetics plays a role. MZ twins show higher concordance rates for obesity than do DZ twins. Children who were adopted are more like their biological parent in weight than their adoptive parents. There is evidence for a specific gene that increases risk of obesity.

Page: 289

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. What are two risk factors for Asthma?

Answer: Being male, low birth weight, having a parent who smokes, obesity, African American heritage are risk factors.

Page: 290

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

 

  1. Explain why rates have continued to rise over time in developed and developing countries?

Answer: The hygiene hypothesis, being so clean that the immune system does not develop properly, is one explanation for increases in developed countries. The rise in pollution as a result of modernization is an explanation for the rise in developing countries.

Page: 290

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

Essay Questions

 

  1. Overall, how would researchers characterize the period of middle childhood in terms of health and safety? Explain, using at least one example to address illness and one to address injuries.

Answer: Middle childhood is considered the healthiest and safest time of life and mortality rates are lowest during this developmental period. In both developed and developing countries, rates of illness are lower due to stronger immune systems, even among those who are not vaccinated. Injury rates are also lower than they were earlier because of better motor skills and better judgment that comes with more sophisticated cognitive development. They are also less likely to get involved in risky situations than they will in adolescence because they have less freedom than they will in their teen years.

Page: 290

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Imagine that you asked a 3-year-old and a 7-year-old from a developed country to draw a picture of herself. Besides the older child being neater, what are three differences you would see?

Answer: The older child will draw with greater detail (showing facial features, multiple colored clothing, various items in the background), the proportions will be more accurate, and sand depth cues will be used.

Page: 292

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 7.1.1.          When are boys and girls most likely to be the slimmest?

  1. infancy
  2. middle childhood
  3. adolescence
  4. late childhood

Answer: b

Page: 286

 

Pre 7.1.2.          What is the medical term for nearsightedness?

  1. prebyscusis
  2. hyperopia
  3. myopia
  4. Pretanopia

Answer: c

Page: 287

 

Pre 7.1.3.       Children participating in a study in Guatemala were classified into high nutrient level or low nutrient level groups (Barrett and Frank, 1987). Compared to children with low nutrient levels, children with high nutrient levels ____.

  1. clinged to their mothers more
  2. were more likely to persist in a frustrating situation
  3. were significantly more anxious
  4. were less likely to be energetic

Answer: b

Page: 287

 

Pre 7.1.4.          Why are rates of overweight and obese children rising in developing countries?

  1. Their diets are becoming more like the diets in developed countries.
  2. There is a worldwide shortage of protein.
  3. Their children are becoming lazy.
  4. They are also acquiring the technology to play games on the Internet for hours.

Answer: a

Page: 288

 

Pre 7.1.5.          What is the current understanding of how genetics influences obesity?

  1. Genetics can explain recent rises in obesity rates and this mystery is now solved.
  2. Genetics only explains obesity with regard to females.
  3. Genetics is a good explanation for recent rises in obesity rates during childhood; however it does little to explain the rates of obesity for adulthood.
  4. Genetics cannot explain recent rises in obesity rates. Genetics provide only a risk for overweight and obesity, not a definite destiny.

Answer: d

Page: 289

 

Pre 7.1.6.          Your neighbors eat out quite a bit and most of it is fast food. Their 8-year-old daughter has a BMI of 24, but they are not concerned because they feel that she will simply outgrow being overweight. Why should they be more concerned? As adults, overweight and obese individuals ____.

  1. tend to spend a considerable amount of their budget on fast food
  2. are more likely to have high blood pressure, heart attacks, and cancer
  3. are more likely to have ADHD
  4. are more likely to be married to their jobs and ignore their families

Answer: b

Page: 289

 

Pre 7.1.7.          In 1978 what percentage of children aged 5 through 10 years had dangerously elevated levels of lead in their blood?

  1. 30%
  2. 40%
  3. 50%
  4. 60%

Answer: a

Page: 290

 

Pre 7.1.8.          Your 9-year-old niece is a much better soccer play than she was at age 4. She is a lot faster and has much better ball control. Her improvement in her soccer skills illustrates growth in ____.

  1. balance
  2. agility
  3. reaction time
  4. strength

Answer: b

Page: 291

 

Pre 7.1.9.          Your sister-in-law has been frustrated with your 6-year-old nephew’s writing skills and development. He is able to write the letters of the alphabet, but cannot write in cursive. She believes that she was able to do so by her son’s age. Given your evaluation of the situation, what do you think?

  1. He is doing fine for a 6-year-old. He should not be able to write in cursive for another two years.
  2. He probably needs more practice with fine motor skills because he is delayed in his development.
  3. He probably has no desire to please his mother and do what she requests.
  4. Inability to write in cursive is a symptom of a serious developmental disorder.

Answer: a

Page: 293

 

Pre 7.1.10.        By the end of middle childhood, gross motor development will ____.

  1.  nearly reach adult maturity
  2.  begin to plateau
  3. continue to advance for many years yet
  4. accelerate in development and then fade

Answer: c

Page: 293

 

Post-Test

 

Post 7.1.1.        How many pounds per year does the average child gain in weight during middle childhood?

  1. 2 to 4 pounds
  2. 5 to 7 pounds
  3. 7 to 9 pounds
  4. 10 to 12 pounds

Answer: b

Page: 286

 

Post 7.1.2.        Your neighbor’s daughter had quite a few ear infections during early childhood. What could you tell her about her daughter, middle childhood, and ear infections?

  1. She will have more ear infections, but the infections build a stronger immune system.
  2. She will have fewer ear infections, but the earlier infections might have caused permanent hearing loss.
  3. Changes in the ear will result in fewer ear infections during middle childhood.
  4. Changes in the ear will help children become better listeners.

Answer: c

Page: 287

 

Post 7.1.3.        During middle childhood physical development is best described as ____.

  1. bodies are much pudgier with a higher body mass index
  2. bodies are stronger and the immune systems are better developed
  3. bodies are much more susceptible to disease and illness
  4. bodies are much weaker and immune systems are stressed and taxed

Answer: b

Page: 287

 

Post 7.1.4.        Your 7-year-old niece and 9-year-old nephew are starting to look like they are gaining weight. According to the text, what is the most important thing that you can do to insure that they will not become overweight or obese?

  1. prepare healthy foods for meals
  2. never let them eat desserts
  3. increase their activity levels
  4. allow them to snack while playing video games

Answer: a

Page: 288

 

Post 7.1.5.        The rates of overweight and obese children are especially high among African American and Latino children. Why?

  1. They have no place to play outside.
  2. They are genetically more likely to become overweight and obese.
  3. Their mothers are less likely to prepare nutritious meals.
  4. They tend to watch the most television per day.

Answer: d

Page: 288

 

Post 7.1.6.        What medical condition can occur in middle childhood as a result of obesity?

  1. nephrosis
  2. diabetes
  3. stroke
  4. cardiac arrest

Answer: b

Page: 289

 

Post 7.1.7.        What percentage of children aged 5 to 10 years in 2001 had dangerously elevated levels of lead in their blood?

  1. 1%
  2. 11%
  3. 21%
  4. 31%

Answer: a

Page: 290

 

Post 7.1.8.        During middle childhood, what is the most common cause of injury?

  1. sports-related injuries
  2. automobile accidents
  3. accidental poisoning
  4. bicycle accidents

Answer: b

Page: 290

 

Post 7.1.9.        Children from developing countries become valuable as factory workers in middle childhood because of their ____.

  1. abilities to perform intricate fine motor tasks such as weaving rugs
  2. emotional stability because some adult factory employees are quick-tempered
  3. cognitive abilities to perform complex conceptual tasks such as designing products
  4. abilities to perform gross motor tasks such threading a needle on a sewing machine

Answer: a

Page: 292

 

Post 7.1.10.      Your neighbor’s daughter can write the letters of the alphabet, her name, and the numbers from one to ten. However, her mother is upset that her daughter is not performing at what she believes to be at a gifted level. In terms of development during middle childhood, what evaluation of the situation do you have? Your neighbor’s daughter is ____.

  1. probably not going to be gifted based on your observations
  2. that the mother is probably helping her child’s efforts to be gifted by worrying about her performance
  3. doing exactly what she should be doing and that her mother needs to relax
  4. likely developmentally delayed

Answer: c

Page: 293

 

Chapter Exam

 

CE 7.1.1.          How many inches per year does the average child gain in height during middle childhood?

  1. 2 to 3″
  2. 5 to 6″
  3. 8 to 9″
  4. 11 to 12″

Answer: a

Page: 286

 

CE 7.1.2.          Because of an increase in ____, middle childhood children can run faster than they could in early childhood.

  1. fine motor movement
  2. flexibility
  3. lung capacity
  4. visual acuity

Answer: c

Page: 286

 

CE 7.1.3.          What is the technical term for nearsightedness?

  1. presbyscusis
  2. myopia
  3. hyperopia
  4. pretanopia

Answer: b

Page: 287

 

CE 7.1.4.          What type of twins have the highest concordance rate for myopia?

  1. monozygotic twins in a developed country
  2. monozygotic twins in a developing country
  3. dizygotic twins in a developed country
  4. dizygotic twins in a developing country

Answer: a

Page: 287

 

CE 7.1.5.          Children aged 6 to 10 years of age are considered to be overweight if they ____.

  1. eat more than 2,000 calories a day
  2. fail to exercise for more than 30 minutes per day
  3. have 20% or more body fat
  4. have a BMI that exceeds 18

Answer: d

Page: 287–288

 

CE 7.1.6.          What is the major contributor to the increase of overweight and obese individuals?

  1. genetic changes
  2. dietary changes
  3. chromosomal changes
  4. biological changes

Answer: b

Page: 288

 

CE 7.1.7.          In a study that assessed American children aged 4 to 11 years of age, watching television predicted gains in ____.

  1. body fat
  2. academic scores
  3. cognitive ability
  4. socio-emotional maturity

Answer: a

Page: 288

 

CE 7.1.8.          In terms of childhood obesity, adopted children ____.

  1. crave sweets and fats like their biological parents
  2. have BMIs that are closer to their biological parents than to the adoptive parents
  3. have BMIs that are more similar to their adoptive parents
  4. are likely to have the same interest in sedentary games as their biological parents

Answer: b

Page: 289

 

CE 7.1.9.          Beginning in middle childhood, obesity is a risk factor for ____.

  1. a variety of emotional and behavioral problems
  2. not being popular in school
  3. ADHD, primarily hyperactivity-impulsivity type
  4. schizophrenia

Answer: a

Page: 289

 

CE 7.1.10.        Obese adults are more likely to have what health problems?

  1. insomnia, incontinence, and bowel obstruction
  2. halitosis, male pattern baldness, and trichophyton
  3. high blood pressure, heart attack, and cancer
  4. chronic fever, hunger, and flatulence

Answer: c

Page: 289

 

CE 7.1.11.        What is a chronic illness of the lungs characterized by wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath?

  1. eczema
  2. allergies
  3. asthma
  4. psoriasis

Answer: c

Page: 290

 

CE 7.1.12.        How does the text define agility?

  1. synchronization of different body parts
  2. response to changing information
  3. moving quickly and precisely
  4. ability to manage equilibrium

Answer: c

Page: 291

 

CE 7.1.13.        In the United States and Canada, what percentage of children between the ages of 5 and 14 years are involved in organized sports?

  1. 10%
  2. 30%
  3. 50%
  4. 70%

Answer: c

Page: 291

 

CE 7.1.14.        For a 6-year-old, which of the following fine motor tasks is developmentally appropriate?

  1. writing complete sentences, reading a 2nd-grade level book, and spelling words such as “hippopotamus”
  2. running a 4-minute mile, jumping over hurdles, and dribbling a soccer ball
  3. writing the letters of the alphabet, their name, and numbers from 1 to 10
  4. writing in cursive, drawing in three-dimensional shapes, and using symbolism in storytelling

Answer: c

Page: 293

 

CE 7.1.15.        By the time that a child has reached the end of middle childhood, what abilities are close to adult mastery?

  1. fine motor skills
  2. gross motor skills
  3. psycho-motor skills
  4. vestibular-motor skills

Answer: a

Page: 293

 

Quick Review

 

QR 7.1.1.         What is the ratio of body weight to height referred to as?

  1. growth index
  2. body mass index
  3. boy fat index
  4. W-H index

Answer: b

Page: 286

 

QR 7.1.2.         Myopia is also known as ____.

  1. binocular vision
  2. farsightedness
  3. nearsightedness
  4. monocular vision

Answer: c

Page: 287

 

QR 7.1.3.         Children between 6 and 10 years of age are considered to be overweight if they ____.

  1. eat more than 2,000 calories a day
  2. have a BMI that exceeds 18
  3. fail to exercise for more than 30 minutes per day
  4. has 20% or more body fat

Answer: b

Page: 287–288

 

QR 7.1.4.         Proctor et al. (2003) found that children who watched at least three hours of television a day ____.

  1. gained 40% more body fat than those who watched less than 1.5 hours a day
  2. earned better grades than those who watched less than 1.5 hours a day
  3. increased their reaction time by 35% compared to children who watched less than 1.5 hours a day
  4. were more likely to develop Type II diabetes than children who watched less than 1.5 hours a day

Answer: a

Page: 288

 

QR 7.1.5.         What is the most accurate statement regarding the relationship between genetics and obesity?

  1. Genetics is destiny. If an individual has the FTO gene, they will become obese.
  2. There really is no genetic relationship, only an environmental one.
  3. Eating sweets and carbs changes chromosomes so that the individual’s offspring will have difficulties with obesity.
  4. Genetics provides a risk for being overweight and obese, but genetics does not equate to destiny.

Answer: d

Page: 289

 

QR 7.1.6.         The death rate during middle childhood is lower than it was in earlier eras  to ____.

  1. vitamins
  2. immunizations
  3. calcium
  4. exercise

Answer: b

Page: 289

 

QR 7.1.7.         Why are there higher rates of asthma in developing countries today than in the past?

  1. air pollution
  2. poor water quality
  3. increased number of fast-food restaurant
  4. living in close proximity to animals in rural areas

Answer: a

Page: 290

 

QR 7.1.8.         Development in what allows children in middle childhood to respond rapidly enough to changing information to catch a football or to hit a tennis ball?

  1. eye-hand coordination
  2. reaction time
  3. myelination
  4. muscular virility

Answer: b

Page: 291

 

QR 7.1.9.         Eighty percent of children in middle childhood in 1969 were involved in physical education programs. What was the percentage in 2005?

  1. 8%
  2. 24%
  3. 56%
  4. 80%

Answer: a

Page: 292

 

QR 7.1.10.        During middle childhood, advances in fine motor development are especially evident in what two areas?

  1. drawing and writing
  2. throwing and catching
  3. jumping and hopping
  4. walking backward and rolling

Answer: a

Page: 292

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. According to this video, what are some of the benefits of sports camps to children?

Answer: There are several benefits of attending a sports camp.  Some of these benefits include cardiovascular endurance, social skills, increasing coordination, the opportunity to practice skills, strengthening of muscles, team building and increasing comfort with their peers.  

 

  1. The person interviewed in this video discusses playing tennis versus video games. Compare and contrast these two activities. The world of gaming has changed considerably since this video was filmed; do you feel that video gaming is still a detriment to the physical health of children of this age?

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

  1. What were some of the reasons mentioned in this video why some children are better at certain sports than others?

Answer: Between the ages of 9 through 13 children grow a considerable amount. The difference in their strength, flexibility, and how often they have the opportunity to practice skills all can impact why one child might be better at a sport than another child. 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. At times during the video, Joan and Bill have moments of life review, a term given to a process in which people who are getting older _________.
  2. have a midlife crisis
  3. go through periods of denial, anger, and acceptance
  4. decide to stop worrying about unfinished business and just forget it
  5. look back on their lives to review decisions and transitions

Answer: D

 

  1. Joan says that a 70-year-old can decide to feel young and act young, but “if you’re 50 and you think you’re old, you’re old.” Bill says, “I’m 71 years old but I don’t feel 71 years old.” Which concept, mentioned by both of them separately in this video, seems to be a basis for these philosophies?
  2. attitude
  3. illusion
  4. learning
  5. mood

Answer: A

 

Section 2 Cognitive Development

 

Test Item File

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. In Piaget’s view, children ages 2–6 are most notable cognitively for what they cannot do such as ____.
  2. coordinating senses with motor activities
  3. using language to assist with thoughts

Incorrect. Children ages 2–6 cannot perform mental operations.

  1. performing mental operations

Correct. Hence the name preoperational, children cannot perform mental operations

  1. using images to create mental representations

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 294

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.1

 

  1. Around ____, children make an important cognitive advance toward becoming more systematic and logical thinkers.
  2. age 5
  3. age 7
  4. age 9
  5. age 11

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 294

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.1

 

  1. Piaget termed the cognitive stage from age 7 to 11 the stage of concrete operations. During this stage children become capable of ____.
  2. object permanence
  3. thinking abstractly and hypothetically

Incorrect. During the concrete operations stage, children become capable of using mental operations.

  1. using mental operations

Correct. Age 7 is the beginning stage of concrete operations.

  1. examining the world scientifically

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 294

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.1

 

  1. During this stage, Piaget proposes, children become capable of using mental operations, which allow them to organize and manipulate information mentally instead of relying on physical and sensory associations.
  2. sensorimotor
  3. preoperations
  4. concrete operations

Correct. Mental operations are the hallmark of stage 3, concrete operations.

  1. formal operations

Incorrect. During the concrete operations stage, children become capable of using mental operations, which allow them to organize and manipulate information mentally instead of relying on physical and sensory associations.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 294

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.1

 

  1. According to Piaget, the advances of concrete operations are evident in new abilities for performing tasks of ____.
  2. the development of motor skills and hand-eye coordination
  3. egocentrism, animism, and language development
  4. conservation, classification, and seriation
  5. hypothetical, deductive reasoning, and hypothesis testing

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 294

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Ashton is shown two round balls of clay equal in size. He watches as the experimenter rolls one ball into a long sausage shape and asks which of the shapes has more clay. If Ashton is in Piaget’s preoperational stage he will reply, ____.
  2. “the long one”

Correct. At the preoperational stage the child is still centered and lack reversibility; therefore, they fail the law of conservation task.

  1. “they are both the same”

Incorrect. The properational child usually answers “the long one,” mistaking a change in shape for a change in quantity because they lack the ability to perform decentering and reversibility.

  1. “the ball”
  2. “I can’t tell”

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 295

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Lorenzo is shown two round balls of clay equal in size. He watches as the experimenter rolls one ball into a long sausage shape and asks which of the shapes has more clay. If Lorenzo is in Piaget’s concrete operations stage he will reply, ____.
  2. “the long one”

Incorrect. The preoperational child usually answers “the long one,” mistaking a change in shape for a change in quantity, whereas by age 7 or 8 most children will answer “the same,” realizing that the quantity remains the same even if the shape changes.

  1. “they are both the same”

Correct. The child that is in concrete operations is decentered and can perform reversibility; therefore, they pass a law of conservation task.

  1. “the ball”
  2. “I can’t tell”

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 295

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.2

 

  1. Piaget’s cognitive task where individuals can take more than one aspect of a problem into account is ____.
  2. decentering
  3. reversibility
  4. egocentrism
  5. animism

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 295

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Piaget a child fails the conservation task because their thoughts are ____.
  2. centered and lack reversibility

Correct. During preoperational thought the child’s mental process are centered and lack reversibility; therefore, they cannot accomplish the conservation task

  1. decentered and possess reversibility

Incorrect. In the preoperational stage children are centered on one obvious problem. The preoperational child also cannot perform the mental operation of reversibility.

  1. egocentric and animated
  2. too hypothetical and possess deductive reasoning

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 295

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What Piagetian concept describes the ability of children to understand that the quantity of an object has not changed although its shape has?
  2. concept shifting
  3. critical thinking
  4. reversibility
  5. decentering

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 295

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are watching your two nephews, ages 7 and 4, play with a ball of clay. Your older nephew is getting very frustrated because even though he is using the same ball of clay, his younger brother thinks that when it is a ball there is less of it than when he rolls it out into a longer shape. What Piagetian concept is your younger nephew lacking the ability to perform?
  2. concept shifting
  3. critical thinking
  4. reversibility

Correct. The preoperational child cannot perform the mental operation of reversibility to confirm that the quantity has not changed even though the shape has.

  1. decentering

Incorrect. The preoperational child cannot perform the mental operation of reversibility to confirm that the quantity has not changed even though the shape has.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 295

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.2

 

  1. Which conservation ability occurs first?
  2. matter and liquid

Correct. Conservation of matter and liquid are attained by most children by age 7 or 8, with conservation of length, area, weight, and volume following over the next few years.

  1. number and length
  2. area and volume

Incorrect. Conservation of matter and liquid are attained by most children by age 7 or 8, with conservation of length, area, weight, and volume following over the next few years.

  1. centering and decentering

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 295

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.2

 

  1. ____ is the ability to sort objects or events that share common characteristics into the same class.
  2. Decentering
  3. Reversibility
  4. Classification
  5. Seriation

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 295

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.2

 

  1. What is the ability to arrange things in a logical order called?
  2. parallelism
  3. seriation
  4. conservation
  5. decentering

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 295

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.3

 

  1. If Julia is taller than Anna and Anna is taller than Lynn, then Julia must be taller than Lynn. According to Piaget, what concept does this question illustrate?
  2. parallelism
  3. seriation
  4. conservation

Incorrect. To get this right, the child has to be able to order the heights mentally from tallest to shortest. Transitive inference is the mental ability to place objects in a logical order.

  1. transitive inference

Correct. To get this right, the child has to be able to order the heights mentally from tallest to shortest. Transitive inference is the mental ability to place objects in a logical order.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 296

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What two advances occur during middle childhood in information processing abilities?
  2. visual scanning and search routines
  3. attention and memory
  4. motivation and diligence
  5. decentering and critical processing

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 296

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your sister-in-law is amazed at her 9-year-old son. She can remember when her son was not able to sit and listen to a story for very long and now he is able to listen intently and remember the story in very good detail. What two advances occur during middle childhood in information processing abilities that assist with his newly developed abilities?
  2. visual scanning and search routines
  3. attention and memory

Correct. In middle childhood, children become more capable of focusing their attention on relevant information and disregarding what is irrelevant. Children’s working memory also enlarges.

  1. motivation and diligence

Incorrect. In middle childhood, children become more capable of focusing their attention on relevant information and disregarding what is irrelevant. Children’s working memory also enlarges.

  1. decentering and critical processing

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 296

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  38     a= 13  b= 38  c= 38  d= 13      r = .17

 

  1. ____, individuals become more capable of focusing their attention on relevant information and disregarding what is irrelevant.
  2. In early childhood
  3. In middle childhood

Correct. As they enter formal school, attention becomes especially important.

  1. In early teenage years

Incorrect. In middle childhood, children become more capable of focusing their attention on relevant information and disregarding what is irrelevant, an ability termed selective attention.

  1. In late teenage years

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 296

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In middle childhood children become more capable of focusing their attention on relevant information and ____.
  2. disregarding what is irrelevant

Correct. In middle childhood, children become more capable of focusing their attention on relevant information and disregarding what is irrelevant, an ability termed selective attention.

  1. listening to teachers

Incorrect. In middle childhood, children become more capable of focusing their attention on relevant information and disregarding what is irrelevant, an ability termed selective attention.

  1. critical processing
  2. processing information at the sublimal level

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 296

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are in your first year of teaching fourth grade. There is quite a bit of remodeling going on at your school, which creates a fair amount of noise. You are amazed at how well your students are able to pay attention to what you are saying. You remember your developmental course and recall that children in middle childhood more capable of focusing their attention because they are able to ____.
  2. disregard what is irrelevant

Correct. In middle childhood, children become more capable of focusing their attention on relevant information and disregarding what is irrelevant, an ability termed selective attention.

  1. get distracted easier
  2. be more critical processing information

Incorrect. In middle childhood, children become more capable of focusing their attention on relevant information and disregarding what is irrelevant, an ability termed selective attention.

  1. process information at the sublimal level

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 296

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.3

 

  1. Why is the ability to maintain attention especially important in middle childhood? Because ____.
  2. the environment becomes more dangerous
  3. parents expect their children to be able to understand and accomplish simple directions and tasks

Incorrect. Being able to maintain attention becomes especially important once children enter school at about age 6 or 7, because the school setting requires children to pay attention to their teachers’ instructions.

  1. that is when children enter school

Correct. Being able to maintain attention becomes especially important once children enter school at about age 6 or 7, because the school setting requires children to pay attention to their teachers’ instructions.

  1. they are able to leave their yards and must remember how to return back home

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.4

 

  1. What is the disorder referred to when individuals have difficulties in maintaining attention?
  2. attention persistence disorder
  3. attention deficit disorder
  4. attention control disorder
  5. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.3

 

  1. Children with especially notable difficulties in maintaining attention may be diagnosed with <P><KT>____, which includes problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness.
  2. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</KT>
  3. attention deficit disorder (ADD)
  4. attention displacement disorder (ADD)
  5. attention hypertensive disorder (AHD)

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.3

% correct  94     a= 94  b= 6  c= 0  d= 0      r = .42

 

  1. What percentage of children have ADHD?
  2. 3–7%
  3. 10–14%
  4. 17–21%
  5. 24–28%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the ratio of boys to girls who have ADHD?
  2. 1 to 4
  3. 2 to 4
  4. 4 to 1
  5. 6 to 1

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the U.S., it is estimated that ____ of children are diagnosed with ADHD. Boys are about ____ more likely than girls to have ADHD.
  2. 3–7%; 4 times
  3. 1–2%; 2 times
  4. 6–10%; 3 times
  5. 10–15%; 6 times

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A child’s ____ usually makes the diagnosis of ADHD.
  2. parent
  3. pediatrician
  4. teacher
  5. school counselor or psychologist

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When is ADHD usually diagnosed?
  2. toddlerhood
  3. early childhood

Incorrect. ADHD is usually first diagnosed in middle childhood, once children enter school and are required to sit still for much of the day.

  1. middle childhood

Correct. ADHD is usually first diagnosed in middle childhood, once children enter school and are required to sit still for much of the day.

  1. adolescence

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The causes of ADHD are unclear; however, it appears to be at least partly due to ____.
  2. genetics

Correct. The causes of ADHD are unclear, but it appears to be at least partly inherited, as nearly 50% of children and adolescents with ADHD also have a sibling or parent with the disorder and MZ twins are more likely than DZ twins to be concordant for it.

  1. childhood illnesses

Incorrect: The causes of ADHD are unclear, but it appears to be at least partly inherited, as nearly 50% of children and adolescents with ADHD also have a sibling or parent with the disorder and MZ twins are more likely than DZ twins to be concordant for it.

  1. poor instruction
  2. poor parenting

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.5

 

  1. Your neighbor is a 36-year-old male who has struggled with ADHD his entire life. His wife is pregnant and ultrasound has determined that they are going to have a boy. He is very concerned that his son might have ADHD too. What would you tell him?
  2. He is probably correct to worry, there is a genetic link for ADHD and boys are more likely to have it.

Correct. The cause of ADHD are unclear, but it appears to be at least partly inherited, as nearly 50% of children and adolescents with ADHD also have a sibling or parent with the disorder. Also, boys are about four times more likely than girls to have ADHD.

  1. He should worry, almost all children have ADHD today.
  2. He does not need to worry, ADHD skips a generation.
  3. Since his wife does not have ADHD the baby probably will not either.

Incorrect. The cause of ADHD are unclear, but it appears to be at least partly inherited, as nearly 50% of children and adolescents with ADHD also have a sibling or parent with the disorder. Also, boys are about four times more likely than girls to have ADHD.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Prenatal exposure to teratogens such as ____ are risk factors associated with ADHD.
  2. caffeine and loud noises
  3. rubella and meningitis
  4. toxoplasmosis and toxemia
  5. alcohol and tobacco

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.4

 

  1. How are the brains of children who have ADHD different than the brains of children who do not have ADHD? The brains of children with ADHD ____.
  2. have a larger corpus collosum

Incorrect. The brains of children with ADHD are slightly smaller and grow more slowly, compared to other children’s brains.

  1. are slightly smaller and grow more slowly

Correct. The brains of children with ADHD are slightly smaller and grow more slowly, compared to other children’s brains.

  1. have a right hemisphere that is noticeably larger than the left hemisphere
  2. have neurofibulary tangling and plaques

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.4

 

  1. Studies using fMRI have discovered that the brains of children with ADHD have ____.
  2. restricted blood flow to the frontal cortex

Correct. Studies using fMRI techniques have found abnormalities in the brain functioning of children with ADHD, including restricted blood flow to the frontal cortex, which controls attention and inhibits behavior.

  1. small abnormalities in the occipital lobe area

Incorrect. Studies using fMRI techniques have found abnormalities in the brain functioning of children with ADHD, including restricted blood flow to the frontal cortex, which controls attention and inhibits behavior.

  1. larger than average ventricles
  2. little functioning in the temporal lobe area

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 297

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.4

 

  1. In the United States nearly ____ of 10 children and adolescents with ADHD receive Ritalin or other medications to reduce their ADHD symptoms.
  2. 3
  3. 5
  4. 7
  5. 9

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are talking to your mother and she is telling you about a neighbor who has a daughter with ADHD. She tells you that the neighbor is extremely upset because her daughter’s pediatrician has suggested medication to treat her ADHD. She thinks that is very unusual and thinks that there might be something else wrong with her daughter that the pediatrician is not telling her. What would you tell your mother to tell the neighbor?
  2. That the neighbor is correct, there must be something else going on too. Medication is not the treatment of choice in the United States.

Incorrect. In the United States, nearly 9 of 10 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD receive Ritalin or other medications to suppress their hyperactivity and help them concentrate better.

  1. That the neighbor is correct, the treatment of choice in the United States is relaxation therapy.
  2. It is very common in the United States for physicians to misdiagnose ADHD.
  3. It is very common in the United States to treat ADHD with medication. About 90% of children with ADHD receive medication.

Correct. In the United States, nearly 9 of 10 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD receive Ritalin or other medications to suppress their hyperactivity and help them concentrate better.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 297

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is a prescription medication that is used to help children with ADHD?
  2. Ritalin
  3. Accutane
  4. acetaminophen
  5. ibuprofen

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.6

 

  1. What percentage of students taking medications for their ADHD show improvements in academic performance and peer relation?
  2. 30%
  3. 50%
  4. 70%
  5. 90%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What are the negative side effects of using medication for the treatment of ADHD?
  2. slower physical growth and higher risk of depression
  3. lethargy and a larger appetite that increases the likelihood of obesity
  4. decreased intelligence and delayed cognitive development
  5. loss of bone density and delayed motor coordination

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 297

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A friend of yours has a son with ADHD who is being treated with medication. She told you that her son is paying attention in school much better, is getting better grades, and has more friends. She is still concerned about the potential side effects of the medication. What negative side effects would you tell her to look for that might be related to taking the mediation?
  2. slower physical growth and higher risk of depression

Correct. Side effects include slower physical growth and higher risk of depression.

  1. lethargy and a larger appetite that increases the likelihood of obesity

Incorrect. Side effects include slower physical growth and higher risk of depression.

  1. decreased intelligence and delayed cognitive development
  2. loss of bone density and delayed motor coordination

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 297

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A very large-scale study of ADHD in Europe determined that the symptoms between boys and girls were similar, but that girls were more likely to have ____.
  2. other neurological difficulties in addition to ADHD
  3. delays in physical development which included secondary sexual development later

Incorrect. The ADORE study found that symptoms of ADHD were similar among boys and girls, but girls with ADHD were more likely than boys to have additional emotional problems and to be bullied by their peers, whereas ADHD boys were more likely than girls to have conduct problems.

  1. emotional problems and to be bullied by their peers

Correct. The ADORE study found that symptoms of ADHD were similar among boys and girls, but girls with ADHD were more likely than boys to have additional emotional problems and to be bullied by their peers, whereas ADHD boys were more likely than girls to have conduct problems.

  1. serious delays in social development

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 297

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.5

 

  1. A very large-scale study of ADHD in Europe determined that the symptoms between boys and girls were similar, but that boys were more likely to have ____.
  2. additional conduct disorders

Correct. The ADORE study found that symptoms of ADHD were similar among boys and girls, but girls with ADHD were more likely than boys to have additional emotional problems and to be bullied by their peers, whereas ADHD boys were more likely than girls to have conduct problems.

  1. delays in physical development which included secondary sexual development later

Incorrect. The ADORE study found that symptoms of ADHD were similar among boys and girls, but girls with ADHD were more likely than boys to have additional emotional problems and to be bullied by their peers, whereas ADHD boys were more likely than girls to have conduct problems.

  1. emotional problems and to be bullied by their peers
  2. minor delays in social development

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 297

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the percentage of children with ADHD who are medicated in Europe?
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 70%
  5. 90%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 298

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.5

 

  1. At what age do children perform on memory tests for sequences of numbers similarly to adults?
  2. 8
  3. 10
  4. 12
  5. 14

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 298

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.5

 

  1. Rehearsal is ____.
  2. repeating information over and over
  3. placing things into meaningful categories
  4. an understanding of how memory works
  5. a measurement of intelligence

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 298

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.7

 

  1. What memory strategy involves repeating the information to be learned over and over?
  2. rehearsal
  3. organization
  4. repetition
  5. elaboration

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 298

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  75     a= 75  b= 13  c= 6  d= 6      r = .50

 

  1. Your daughter borrowed $4.73 from you while you were shopping so she could purchase a doll that she didn’t have enough money for. When you get home, you tell your daughter how much she owes you so that she can pay you back. She keeps repeating 4, 7, 3 over and over as she walks to her room to get the money. What memory strategy is she using?
  2. rehearsal

Correct. Rehearsal involves repeating the information over and over.

  1. organization
  2. repetition

Incorrect. Rehearsal involves repeating the information over and over.

  1. elaboration

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 298

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  56     a= 56  b= 0  c= 44  d= 0     r = .31

 

  1. Your new friend just told you her cell number so you can enter it in your phone. However, you left your cell phone in your dorm room. You keep repeating the number over and over in your head so that you will be able to enter the number in your cell phone once you get to it. What memory strategy are you using?
  2. rehearsal

Correct. Rehearsal involves repeating the information over and over.

  1. organization
  2. repetition

Incorrect. Rehearsal involves repeating the information over and over.

  1. elaboration

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 298

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What memory strategy involves placing items into meaningful categories?
  2. rehearsal
  3. organization
  4. repetition
  5. elaboration

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 298

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are going to go grocery shopping. To help you remember the items that you need to purchase, you put those items into clusters or categories that are similar. What memory strategy are you using?
  2. rehearsal
  3. organization

Correct. Organization involves placing things into meaningful categories.

  1. repetition

Incorrect. Organization involves placing things into meaningful categories.

  1. elaboration

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 298

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What memory strategy involves transforming bits of information in a way that connects them and hence makes them easier to remember?
  2. rehearsal
  3. organization
  4. repetition
  5. elaboration

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 298

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.6

 

  1. When you were learning to play the piano, you used EGBDF: Every Good Boy Does Fine to remember the lines of the treble clef. What memory strategy is this?
  2. rehearsal
  3. organization
  4. repetition

Incorrect. Elaboration involves transforming bits of information in a way that connects them and hence makes them easier to remember.

  1. elaboration

Correct. Elaboration involves transforming bits of information in a way that connects them and hence makes them easier to remember.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 298

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.6

% correct  75     a= 0  b= 25  c= 0  d= 75      r = .26

 

  1. Another reason that memory improves from early childhood to middle childhood is that children’s ____.
  2. brains get bigger
  3. knowledge base gets larger

Correct. Another reason why memory improves from early childhood to middle childhood is that children’s knowledge base expands, and the more you know, the easier it is to remember new information that is related to what you know.

  1. strategies become more elaborate and purposeful

Incorrect. Another reason why memory improves from early childhood to middle childhood is that children’s knowledge base expands, and the more you know, the easier it is to remember new information that is related to what you know.

  1. families help them remember

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 299

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.8

 

  1. Chi (1978) did a very interesting study in which she asked 10-year-old children who were chess experts to remember the position of chess pieces on the board. How did they do?
  2. as well as college students who were chess novices
  3. as well as college students who were chess experts
  4. not nearly as well as adults in general, chess experts or novices

Incorrect. The 10-year-old chess masters performed far better than the college student novices.

  1. better than college students who were chess novices

Correct. The 10-year-old chess masters performed far better than the college student novices.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 299

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.6

 

  1. What is the term that the textbook defines as an understanding of how memory works?
  2. metaconfiguration
  3. metamemory
  4. metaprocessing
  5. metacognition

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 299

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. One aspect of children’s memory during middle childhood is that they ___.
  2. develop more accurate assessments of their memory skills

Correct. In the course of middle childhood, children develop more accurate assessments of their memory abilities.

  1. generally revert back to a more immature way of remembering information
  2. become fearful of applying their strategies at school
  3. become anxious regarding their memory performance

Incorrect. In the course of middle childhood, children develop more accurate assessments of their memory abilities.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 299

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When do individual differences in cognitive development become more evident and more important?
  2. infancy
  3. toddlerhood
  4. early childhood

Incorrect. Individual differences become more evident and more important in middle childhood, when children enter formal schooling and begin to be tested and evaluated by their teachers on a regular basis.

  1. middle childhood

Correct. Individual differences become more evident and more important in middle childhood, when children enter formal schooling and begin to be tested and evaluated by their teachers on a regular basis.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 299

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ is a person’s capacity for acquiring knowledge, reasoning, and solving problems.
  2. Intelligence
  3. Personality
  4. Temperament
  5. Attachment

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 299

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the most widely used IQ test?
  2. Stanford-Binet
  3. Wechsler scales
  4. Kaufman
  5. Wide Range Achievement Test

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 299

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. Your daughter’s teacher thinks that your daughter should be in the gifted program at school. The school psychologist will be using an IQ test to determine if she qualifies. What IQ test is the school psychologist likely to use?
  2. Stanford-Binet
  3. Wechsler scales

Correct. The most widely used intelligence tests are the Wechsler scales.

  1. Kaufman

Incorrect. The most widely used intelligence tests are the Wechsler scales.

  1. Wide Range Achievement Test

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 299

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.9

 

  1. The Wechsler scales consist of 11 subtests, of which six are ____ subtests and five are ____ subtests.
  2. verbal; performance
  3. visual; perceptual
  4. emotional stability; personality
  5. applied; conceptual

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 300

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.7

 

  1. What does IQ represent?
  2. individual difference quotient
  3. individual quotient
  4. intelligence quotient
  5. interpersonal quotient

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 300

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.7

 

  1. Lynn and Mikk (2007) performed a study that included 46 countries. They found that IQ scores were highly correlated with ____.
  2. school achievement

Correct. Lynn and Mikk’s study found that across 46 countries, IQ scores and school achievement scores were highly correlated.

  1. years of education
  2. mother’s age when the child was born

Incorrect. Lynn and Mikk’s study found that across 46 countries, IQ scores and school achievement scores were highly correlated.

  1. musical ability

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 300

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.7

 

  1. What is one of the major criticisms of intelligence tests?
  2. they’re not accurate
  3. they’re not relevant to academic or professional behavior
  4. they’re culturally biased

Correct. IQ tests have been attacked as culturally biased, because some of the vocabulary and general knowledge items would be more familiar to someone who was part of the middle-class culture.

  1. they’re too difficult for most people

Incorrect. IQ tests have been attacked as culturally biased, because some of the vocabulary and general knowledge items would be more familiar to someone who was part of the middle-class culture.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 300

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  75     a= 6  b= 19  c= 75  d=  0     r = .69

 

  1. IQ scores for a population-based sample usually fall into a ____ or ____ curve, in which most people fall near the middle and the proportions decrease at the low and high extremes.
  2. normal distribution; bell
  3. camelback; double hill
  4. inverted-U; inverted-V
  5. variance from the mean; absolute value

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 301

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In terms of intellectual development, one important conclusion from adoption and twin studies is that the more two people in a family are alike genetically, ____.
  2. the higher the correlation in their IQ scores

Correct. One important conclusion from adoption and twin studies is that the more two people in a family are alike genetically, the higher the correlation in their IQs.

  1. the less correlated their IQ scores are
  2. the greater the diversity in subskills on an intelligence test

Incorrect. One important conclusion from adoption and twin studies is that the more two people in a family are alike genetically, the higher the correlation in their IQs.

  1. the greater the likelihood that there will be children with very low IQ scores in the family

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 301

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the correlation coefficient for IQ scores of adopted siblings who have none of their genotype in common?
  2. .10
  3. .24
  4. .38
  5. .52

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 301

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the correlation in IQ scores for monozygotic (MZ) twins?
  2. .55
  3. .65
  4. .75
  5. .85

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 301

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.10

 

  1. Which of the following pairs would have the strongest correlation for IQ scores?
  2. monozygotic twins reared in different environments

Correct. The highest IQ correlation of all, about .85, is among MZ twins. Even when they are adopted by separate families and raised apart, the correlations in IQ scores of MZ twins are about .75.

  1. dizygotic twins reared in the same environment

Incorrect. Even when they are adopted by separate families and raised apart, the correlation in IQ scores of MZ twins is about .75.

  1. biological siblings reared in different environments
  2. adopted siblings in the same environment

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 301

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The median population IQ is ____.
  2. 85
  3. 100
  4. 115
  5. 130

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 301

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Every child has a genetically based ____ for intelligence, meaning a range of possible developmental paths.
  2. reaction range
  3. heritability ratio
  4. standard deviation
  5. variance from the mean

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 302

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the name of the phenomenon in which IQ scores in Western countries rose dramatically in the course of the 20th century?
  2. breast-feeding effect
  3. academic effect
  4. butterfly effect
  5. Flynn effect

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 302

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  100     a= 0  b= 0  c= 0  d= 100      r = .00

 

  1. The Flynn effect, which is the raising of the median IQ score in Western countries in the course of the 20th century, is explained by ____.
  2. evolution
  3. neurological development
  4. genetics

Incorrect. The causes must be environmental, rather than genetic; the genes of the human population could not have changed so dramatically in such a short time.

  1. environment

Correct. Several factors have contributed to the increase of IQ: prenatal care, educational system, television, the decline of infectious diseases, etc.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 302

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.8

 

  1. Christopher Eppig and his colleagues found that the brain requires a great deal of the body’s physical energy. What percentage of this energy is required for brain development in newborns?
  2. 87%
  3. 67%
  4. 47%
  5. 27%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 303

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.8

 

  1. Christopher Eppig and his colleagues found that there was a significant relationship between a country’s median IQ score and that country’s ____.
  2. average age
  3. educational attainment

Incorrect. This particular study found that infectious disease was related to intelligence. The higher a country’s infectious disease burden, the lower the country’s median IQ.

  1. median income
  2. infectious disease burden

Correct. This particular study found that infectious disease was related to intelligence. The higher a country’s infectious disease burden, the lower the country’s median IQ.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 303

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Who developed the concept of multiple intelligences?
  2. Robert Sternberg
  3. Howard Gardner
  4. David Wechsler
  5. Alfred Binet

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 303

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.11

 

  1. In Gardner’s view, only two types of intelligence are measured by traditional intelligence tests: ____.
  2. linguistic and logical–mathematical
  3. musical and bodily–kinesthetic
  4. spatial and naturalistic
  5. interpersonal and intrapersonal

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 303

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Morris is an engineer. He has always been especially skilled at looking at a two-dimensional blueprint of a building and visualizing that image as it relates into a three-dimensional structure in the real world. According to Gardner, Morris possesses ____.
  2. musical intelligence
  3. bodily–kinesthetic intelligence

Incorrect. Spatial intelligence is the ability to think three-dimensionally.

  1. spatial intelligence

Correct. Spatial intelligence is ability to think in 3-dimension.

  1. intrapersonal intelligence

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 303

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.8

 

  1. Which of the following types of intelligence is consistent with the understanding of self?
  2. linguistic
  3. musical
  4. intrapersonal
  5. interpersonal

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 303

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Who developed the triarchic theory of intelligence?
  2. Robert Sternberg
  3. Howard Gardner
  4. David Wechsler
  5. Alfred Binet

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 303

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Sternberg’s model includes ____ distinct but related forms of intelligence.
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 8
  5. 10

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 303

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences includes ____ types of intelligence and Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence theory includes ____.
  2. 4; 1
  3. 6; 2
  4. 8; 3
  5. 10; 4

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 303

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Great inventors such as Leonardo da Vinci, Benjamin Franklin, and Alexander Graham Bell all possess which of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
  2. creative intelligence

Correct. Creative intelligence involves the ability to combine information in original ways to produce new insights, ideas, and problem-solving strategies.

  1. practical intelligence
  2. analytical intelligence

Incorrect. Creative intelligence involves the ability to combine information in original ways to produce new insights, ideas, and problem-solving strategies.

  1. logical–mathematical intelligence

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 303

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.12

 

  1. Which of the following makeup Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
  2. analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
  3. sensorimotor, preoperational, and concrete operations
  4. linguistic, musical, and bodily–kinesthetic
  5. intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalistic

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 303

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  88     a= 88  b= 6  c= 0  d= 6      r = .61

 

  1. Until approximately 200 years ago, how many adults were illiterate?
  2. all
  3. most
  4. half
  5. a quarter

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 304

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Children almost everywhere learn to read, usually beginning around age ____, when they enter school.
  2. 2 or 3
  3. 4 or 5
  4. 6 or 7
  5. 8 or 9

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 304

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In order to read, you have to recognize that letters are ____, and match a ____to each letter or letter combination.
  2. preoperational; schema

Incorrect. In order to read, you have to recognize that letters are symbols of sounds, and then match a speech sound to each letter or letter combination.

  1. concrete; symbol
  2. endless; perception
  3. symbols of sounds; speech sound

Correct. Letters and words are symbolic representations of speech sounds; the larger word is a symbol which relates to an idea.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 304

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.9

 

  1. What approach to teaching reading advocates teaching children by breaking down words into their component sounds and then putting the sounds together into words?
  2. linguistic processing
  3. spot and dot
  4. whole language
  5. phonics

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 304–305

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The phonics approach advocates ____.
  2. that schemas are changed through assimilation and accommodation
  3. teaching children by breaking down words into their component sounds and then putting the sounds together into words
  4. emphasizes the meaning of written words in whole passages
  5. allowing a child to explore their world as a means of cognitive growth

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 304–305

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Ms. Silman proposes that children learn how to read best when they are taught to examine the overall meaning of words, rather than breaking down each word into its smallest component. She encourages her students to guess at the meaning of words they do not know, based on the context of the word within the poem or story. Which of the following does Ms. Silman practice in her classroom?
  2. phonics-based reading

Incorrect. The whole-language approach to teaching reading emphasizes the meaning of written language in whole passages, rather than breaking down words to their smallest components. It advocates teaching children to read using complete written material, such as poems or stories, and children are encouraged to guess at the meaning of words they do not know based on the context of the word within the written material.

  1. a whole-language approach to reading

Correct. Whole language proposes that what really must take place within the context is a high emphasis on the overall picture.

  1. sight words–based reading
  2. literacy-based rating

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 305

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.9

% correct  81     a= 19  b= 81  c= 0  d= 0      r = .43

 

  1. What condition that interferes with learning to read includes difficulty sounding out letters, difficulty learning to spell words, and a tendency to misperceive the order of letters in words?
  2. dyscalculia
  3. dyslexia
  4. dysgraphia
  5. dysfunctional

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 305

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.13

 

  1. What is the term that refers to an individual’s ability to understand the meaning of numbers?
  2. literacy
  3. arithmetic
  4. numerology
  5. numeracy

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 305

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. From toddlerhood through middle childhood, the development of math skills follows a path parallel to the development of ____ and ____.
  2. language; reading skills
  3. sensation; perception
  4. the preoperational stage; concrete operations
  5. hypothetical reasoning; deductive reasoning

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 305

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. How many words does an average 10 or 11 year old know?
  2. 10,000
  3. 20,000
  4. 30,000
  5. 40,000

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 306

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. At age 6 the average child knows about ____ words, but by age 10 or 11 this sum has increased fourfold, to about ____.
  2. 1,000; 4,000
  3. 5,000; 20,000
  4. 10,000; 40,000
  5. 15,000; 60,000

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 306

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 7.2.10

 

  1. What aspect of language refers to the social context and conventions of language?
  2. phonics
  3. pragmatics
  4. grammar
  5. vocabulary

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 307

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.9

 

  1. When an individual can speak two languages fluently they are ____.
  2. bilingual
  3. multilingual
  4. dilingual
  5. linguistic

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 307

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following are two main reasons why bilingualism has increased?
  2. greater migration and the growth of a global economy

Correct. Migration and global interdependency has both increased in recent times.

  1. greater egocentrism and egotism

Incorrect. There are two reasons bilingualism has increased. First, with increased migration between countries, children are more likely to be exposed early to other languages, one spoken at home and one spoken with friends, teachers, and others outside the home. Second, school systems increasingly seek to teach children a second language to enhance their ability to participate in the global economy.

  1. decreased migration and greater homogeneous populations
  2. decreased ethnocentrism and capitalism

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 307

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 7.2.10

 

  1. Which of the following is the most common second language for children around the world?
  2. English
  3. Spanish
  4. Chinese
  5. Russian

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 307

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.14

 

  1. For the most part, becoming bilingual is ____ to language development and learning a secondary language ____ with mastering the primary language.
  2. detrimental; interferes

Incorrect. For the most part, becoming bilingual is favorable to language development. Learning a secondary language does not interfere with mastering the primary language.

  1. stifling; does not interfere
  2. unfavorable; interferes
  3. favorable; does not interfere

Correct. For the most part, becoming bilingual is favorable to language development. Learning a secondary language does not interfere with mastering the primary language.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 307

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 7.2.10

% correct  100     a= 0  b= 0  c= 0  d= 100    r = .00

 

  1. Assume that you have a friend who is bilingual and is contemplating whether or not to teach her child both English and Spanish. Based on the research, which of the following should be your response?
  2. “It is generally not recommended to teach bilingualism as it is too much for the child to handle. Their brains are just not ready for it.”
  3. “If you want your son to be bilingual it is recommended that you wait until he is at least 14 to teach the second language. The brain is further developed at a later age.”
  4. “Most of the research for bilingualism is positive. Sometimes children have difficulty with syntax; however, it is better to learn a second language sooner than later.”

Correct. There is overwhelming support that the overall affect of bilingualism is positive and children learn and better at a younger age.

  1. “If you teach your child both English and Spanish his teacher will become frustrated and take it out on his grades. It is generally not recommended.”

Incorrect. For the most part, becoming bilingual is favorable to language development. One minor problem that does arise is that in early childhood there is sometimes a tendency to intermix the syntax of the two languages. Even so, learning a second language comes much easier in early and middle childhood than it does at later ages.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 308

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ are an awareness of the underlying structure of language.
  2. Mesolinguistic skills
  3. Metalinguistic skills
  4. Megalinguistic skills
  5. Mesalinguistic skills

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 308

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When an individual can speak three or more languages fluently they are ____.
  2. bilingual
  3. multilingual
  4. dilingual
  5. linguistic

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 309

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A child who can speak two languages is considered ____, whereas a child who can speak more than two is considered ____.
  2. bilingual; multilingual
  3. trilingual; polylingual
  4. unilingual; quadralingual
  5. monolingual; dyslingual

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 309

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In India many children are fluent in which of the following languages?
  2. Hindi, Pakistani, and French
  3. their local language, Hindi, and English
  4. Pakistani, Portuguese, and Spanish
  5. their local language, Hindi, and Chinese

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 309

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 7.2.15

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What are two possible causes of ADHD?

Answer: Genetics, abnormal brain functioning, or exposure to prenatal teratogens

Page: 297

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

 

  1. Would you say that the Attention-deficit-hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) study made a significant contribution to this area of research? Why or why not? What was one finding?

Answer: Yes, because most of the research in this area has been conducted in the U.S. It was also a large study involving many countries carried out over two years. The finding was that there were higher rates of boys with this disorder than in the U.S.

Page: 297

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Metamemory advances significantly in middle childhood, however, children as young as 5 or 6 have some rudimentary grasp of metamemory. Give an example of what a middle-school child would knows about it versus what a first grader knows.

Answer: A young child could tell you that a short list is easier to remember than a long list or that they would be more likely to remember something yesterday than something years ago. However, older children would be able to tell you the various steps they took to solve a problem and they would be more realistic in appraising their own memory abilities.

Page: 299

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. You overhear two parents talking about the different approaches to teaching reading used by the first grade teachers in your child’s school. You hear one of them complaining that her child is going to be behind if she stays in a particular teacher’s classroom. What are the two approaches and is there an advantage to using one over the other?

Answer: The two approaches are phonics (breaking words down to sound them out) and the whole word method (teaching the meaning of words by encouraging students to use the context of whole passages to figure it out). Phonics works best with those who are just learning to read, but for more advanced readers, a combination of both approaches is effective

Page: 305

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. What is the Flynn effect and what is its cause?

Answer: The Flynn effect refers to the rise in median IQ in Western countries over the past century. It is caused by environmental changes, such as improved medical care, lower rates of infectious diseases, smaller families, more years of education starting in preschool, more exposure to information via various forms of media

Page: 302

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. A 9-year-old would be in what Piagetian stage? Describe two tasks that they would be able to do that they could not do at the previous stage.

Answer: The child is in concrete operations. They can now master all conservation tasks because they no longer centrate and they have a better understanding of language. They can classify and can seriate items in terms of length, width, and color.

Page: 294-296

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Shani, a 12-year-old, is able to remember a lot more details of the family’s vacation to Philadelphia a year later when recommending it as a destination to their friends compared to her 7-year-old brother. When they left, she packed everything she needed, unlike her sister who would have forgotten many things, even everyday items, such as her toothbrush, if her father had not checked her bag. Shani even reminded her parents of the exit number where they had talked about stopping on the way to eat. Referring to the information above, describe two changes in memory that play a role in Shani’s superior memory.

Answer: Individuals in middle childhood experience an increased capacity of working memory, more use of mnemonics, better organization, more elaboration, and increased metamemory.

Page: 299

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 7.2.1.          According to Piaget, children become capable of what cognitive abilities during concrete operations?

  1. using mental operations
  2. object permanence
  3. thinking abstractly and hypothetically
  4. examining the world scientifically

Answer: a

Page: 294

 

Pre 7.2.2.          In terms of the Piagetian concept of “conservation,” which ability occurs first?

  1. number and length
  2. area and volume
  3. matter and liquid
  4. entering and decentering

Answer: c

Page: 295

 

Pre 7.2.3.          Theories of Cognitive Development

When individuals have great difficulties maintaining attention, what disorder do they have?

  1. attention persistence disorder
  2. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  3. attention control disorder
  4. attention deficit disorder

Answer: b

Page: 297

 

Pre 7.2.4.          Theories of Cognitive Development

In what ways are the brains of children with ADHD different than the brains of children who do not have ADHD? The brains of children with ADHD ____.

  1. are slightly smaller and grow more slowly
  2. have a larger corpus collosum
  3. have a right hemisphere that is noticeably larger than the left hemisphere
  4. have neurofibulary tangling and plaques

Answer: a

Page: 297

 

Pre 7.2.5.          Theories of Cognitive Development

In Europe, what percentage of children with ADHD are medicated?

  1. 99%
  2. 75%
  3. 50%
  4. 25%

Answer: d

Page: 298

 

Pre 7.2.6.          Theories of Cognitive Development

Many people use the memory strategy of EGBDF: Every Good Boy Does Fine when learning the lines of the treble clef. What is the name of this strategy?

  1. rehearsal
  2. elaboration
  3. repetition
  4. organization

Answer: b

Page: 298

 

Pre 7.2.7.          Theories of Cognitive Development

The abbreviation IQ stands for ____.

  1. intelligence quotient
  2. individual difference quotient
  3.          individual quotient
  4. interpersonal quotient

Answer: a

Page: 300

 

Pre 7.2.8.          Your mother is an architect. She has always been very skilled at examining and understanding two-dimensional blueprints and can easily visualize those images as a three-dimensional structure. According to Gardner, your mother possess ____.

  1. musical intelligence
  2. spatial intelligence
  3. intrapersonal intelligence
  4. bodily kinesthetic intelligence

Answer: b

Page: 303

 

Pre 7.2.9.          You have been very interested in determining the best method to teach reading. There are several techniques that exist, only some of which are actually supported by science as appropriate methods. You have examined all of the techniques and have determined, based on substantial evidence, that which approach is the most beneficial to young children beginning to learn to read?

  1. phonics-based instruction
  2. whole language-based instruction
  3. sight word-based instruction
  4. literacy-based instruction

Answer: a

Page: 305

 

Pre 7.2.10.        The average 6-year-old has a vocabulary of how many words?

  1. 1,000
  2. 5,000
  3. 10,000
  4. 15,000

Answer: c

Page: 306

 

Post-Test

 

Post 7.2.1.        Theories of Cognitive Development

According to Piaget, at what age do children make an important cognitive advance toward becoming more systematic and logical thinkers?

  1. 7 years
  2. 8 years
  3. 9 years
  4. 10 years

Answer: a

Page: 294

 

Post 7.2.2.        Theories of Cognitive Development

You are watching two children playing. The 7-year-old is getting very frustrated because even though he is using the same ball of clay, his 4-year-old brother thinks that when it is a ball there is less of it than when the older child rolls it out into a longer shape. What Piagetian concept describes the younger child’s lack of ability?

  1. concept shifting
  2. critical thinking
  3. reversibility
  4. decentering

Answer: c

Page: 295

 

Post 7.2.3.        Theories of Cognitive Development

You are a 4th-grade teacher. There is quite a bit of remodeling going on at your school, which creates a fair amount of noise. You are amazed at how well your students are able to pay attention to what you are saying. You remember your developmental course and recall that children in middle childhood are more capable of focusing their attention because they are able to ____.

  1. get distracted easier
  2. disregard what is irrelevant
  3. be more critical about processing information
  4. process information at the subliminal level

Answer: b

Page: 296

 

Post 7.2.4.        Theories of Cognitive Development

Which prenatal teratogens are risk factors for ADHD?

  1. alcohol and tobacco
  2. caffeine and loud noises
  3. rubella and meningitis
  4. toxoplasmosis and toxemia

Answer: a

Page: 297

 

Post 7.2.5.        Theories of Cognitive Development

In Europe a very large-scale study of ADHD was conducted. The results indicated that the symptoms between boys and girls were similar, but that girls were more likely to have ____.

  1. other neurological difficulties in addition to ADHD
  2. delays in physical development, which included later secondary sex characteristic development
  3. serious delays in social development
  4. emotional problems and to be bullied by their peers

Answer: d

Page: 297

This is just a sample not the full file.