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Herlihy: The Human Body in Health and Illness, 4th Edition

 

Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Which of the following is located in the orbits surrounding the nucleus?
a. Isotopes
b. Protons
c. Electrons
d. Neutrons

ANS:  C

  1. Which of the following is a measurement of hydrogen ion concentration [H+]?
a. Atomic number
b. Atomic mass
c. Isotope
d. pH

ANS:  D

  1. The sharing of electrons is referred to as
a. covalent bonding.
b. ionic bonding.
c. radioactive decay.
d. isotope formation.

ANS:  A

  1. Which element must be present for a substance to be classified as organic?
a. Iodine
b. Iron
c. Carbon
d. Calcium

ANS:  C

  1. A cation is a(n)
a. positively charged ion.
b. electrolyte.
c. isotope.
d. ion that has an atomic mass of 2.

ANS:  A

  1. Which of the following is an anion?
a. Sodium ion
b. Potassium ion
c. Chloride ion
d. Calcium ion

ANS:  C

  1. Which ion has 8 protons in the nucleus and 9 electrons in its orbits?
a. Cation
b. Electrolyte
c. Acid
d. Anion

ANS:  D

  1. Which of the following is true of an anion?
a. An anion always ionizes to form electrolytes.
b. An anion always has an atomic mass of 15.
c. An anion carries a negative charge.
d. Hydrogen ion is an anion.

ANS:  C

  1. NaCl, table salt, is called a(n)
a. anion.
b. electrolyte.
c. cation.
d. ion.

ANS:  B

  1. Which process refers to the dissociation of NaCl into Na+ and Cl?
a. Radioactivity
b. Ionization
c. Covalent bonding
d. Hydrogen bonding

ANS:  B

  1. Which of the following is descriptive of the chemical reaction in the previous question?
a. Cation + anion ® electrolyte
b. Electrolyte ® cation + anion
c. Electrolyte + anion ® cation
d. Neutralization of an acid by a base

ANS:  B

  1. Which of the following is an anion?
a. NaCl
b. KCl
c. H2SO4
d. HCO3

ANS:  D

  1. Which of the following represents bicarbonate, an anion that is important in acid-base regulation?
a. HCl
b. Ca(OH)2
c. HCO3
d. KCl

ANS:  C

  1. Which compound is the universal solvent?
a. Carbon dioxide
b. Oxygen
c. ATP
d. Water

ANS:  D

  1. [H+] refers to
a. an isotope of hydrogen.
b. heavy hydrogen.
c. hydrogen bonding.
d. hydrogen ion concentration.

ANS:  D

  1. Which compound is a waste product of cellular metabolism?
a. Oxygen
b. Carbon dioxide
c. Catalyst
d. ATP

ANS:  B

  1. Which of the following increases the speed of a chemical reaction, but is itself not used up in the chemical reaction?
a. An isotope
b. A cation
c. A catalyst
d. ATP

ANS:  C

  1. What is the energy-transferring molecule?
a. H+
b. ATP
c. Ca2+
d. NaCl

ANS:  B

  1. Which of the following acts as a catalyst?
a. An acid
b. An enzyme
c. A buffer
d. ATP

ANS:  B

  1. The word ferrous refers to
a. an acid solution.
b. an alkaline solution.
c. any cation.
d. iron.

ANS:  D

  1. Na+
a. is an anion.
b. is an electrolyte.
c. bonds ionically with Ca2+.
d. is a cation.

ANS:  D

  1. Which of the following carries no net electrical charge?
a. An anion
b. A cation
c. A polar molecule
d. An ion

ANS:  C

  1. Which of the following illustrates antacid activity?
a. NaCl ® Na+ + Cl
b. HCl ® H+ + Cl
c. Mg(OH)2 + HCl ® MgCl2 + H2O
d. KCl ® K+ + Cl

ANS:  C

  1. Zinc, selenium, cobalt, and iodine are all
a. trace elements.
b. compounds.
c. radioactive.
d. isotopes of hydrogen.

ANS:  A

  1. Iron is a(n)
a. anion.
b. electrolyte.
c. acid.
d. cation.

ANS:  D

  1. Which of the following is described by this statement? One atom of oxygen bonds covalently with two atoms of hydrogen.
a. Carbon dioxide
b. A tincture
c. Water
d. Neutralization of an acid with a base

ANS:  C

  1. A solution that has a pH of 6.8
a. has a neutral pH.
b. is alkaline.
c. is basic.
d. is acidic.

ANS:  D

  1. What happens when HCl is added to a solution with a pH of 7.45?
a. The pH will be higher than 7.45.
b. The solution will become more alkaline.
c. The [H+] of the solution will increase.
d. The pH will be higher than 8.0.

ANS:  C

  1. Which pH is considered neutral?
a. 7.35
b. 7.45
c. 7.00
d. 14.0

ANS:  C

  1. Blood has a pH range of 7.35 to 7.45 and therefore
a. is acidic.
b. is three to four times more viscous (thicker) than water.
c. has a pH that is similar to urine and stomach contents.
d. is alkaline.

ANS:  D

  1. In which of the following is the number of hydrogen ions greater?
a. An alkaline solution
b. A basic solution
c. Blood
d. Urine

ANS:  D

  1. An atom has 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons; it has an atomic
a. number of 6.
b. mass of 2.
c. mass of 4.
d. number of 4.

ANS:  C

  1. An atom has 1 proton, 0 neutrons, and 1 electron; its isotope has
a. 2 electrons and 0 neutrons.
b. 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
c. 1 proton and 1 neutron.
d. 2 protons and 0 neutrons.

ANS:  C

  1. An atom has 1 proton, 0 neutrons, and 1 electron. What will convert this atom to a cation?
a. Add 1 neutron.
b. Add 1 proton.
c. Lose 1 electron.
d. Add 1 proton and 2 neutrons, and eliminate 1 electron.

ANS:  C

  1. The heart pushes blood into the blood vessels as chemical energy is converted to which form of energy?
a. Thermal
b. Radiant
c. Mechanical
d. Nuclear

ANS:  C

  1. Which of the following best describes a solution in which water is the solvent?
a. Colloidal suspension
b. Aqueous solution
c. Tincture
d. Isotope

ANS:  B

  1. Which of the following best describes a solution in which alcohol is the solvent?
a. Tincture
b. Alkaline
c. Acid
d. Aqueous

ANS:  A

  1. A combination of sugar granules and iron filings is best described as a(n)
a. mixture.
b. colloidal suspension.
c. tincture.
d. isotope.

ANS:  A

  1. Which of the following can neutralize H+?
a. Ca2+
b. Na+
c. OH
d. H2O

ANS:  C

  1. Which of the following is incorrect?
a. Mixtures: suspension, colloidal suspension, solution
b. Ions: Na+, Cl, Ca2+, K+
c. Electrolytes: NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, HCO3
d. Cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+, H+

ANS:  C

  1. The ionization of salt (NaCl)
a. produces an acid and a base.
b. produces an electrolyte.
c. lowers pH.
d. produces a cation and an anion.

ANS:  D

  1. Which of the following is true of iodine and radioactive iodine?
a. Both have the same atomic numbers.
b. Both have the same atomic masses.
c. Neither have electrons in their orbits.
d. Both create radiation hazards.

ANS:  A

  1. Which of the following is true of Na+?
a. Called the sodium ion
b. Has fewer protons than electrons
c. Called an anion
d. Lowers pH

ANS:  A

  1. Which of the following is true of Cl?
a. Is an electrolyte
b. Is an anion
c. Increases pH
d. Is an electrolyte

ANS:  A

  1. Which of the following is most descriptive of HCl?
a. Is called bicarbonate
b. Is an acid
c. Raises pH
d. Dissociates into Na+ and Cl

ANS:  A

  1. Water is a(n)
a. molecule.
b. aqueous solvent.
c. compound.
d. all of the above.

ANS:  C

  1. An atom that has 3 protons, 4 neutrons, and 3 electrons
a. has an atomic mass of 7.
b. is a cation.
c. has an atomic number of 4.
d. has an atomic number of 10.

ANS:  A

  1. An atom has 3 protons, 4 neutrons, and 3 electrons; another atom has 3 protons, 3 neutrons, and 3 electrons. Which of the following is most descriptive of this pair of atoms?
a. Mixture
b. Cation
c. Electrolyte
d. Isotope

ANS:  D

  1. An atom that has 4 protons, 4 neutrons, and 4 electrons. It
a. has an atomic number of 8.
b. is a cation.
c. has an atomic mass of 12.
d. has an atomic mass of 8.

ANS:  D

  1. ATP
a. is a buffer, removing H+ from solution.
b. is an energy transfer molecule.
c. is a radioactive isotope of phosphate.
d. ionizes to H+, thereby lowering pH.

ANS:  B

  1. Which of the following is most descriptive of the nucleus of the atom?
a. Contents determine the atomic number
b. Contents determine the atomic mass
c. “Home” of the protons
d. All of the above

ANS:  D

  1. Which of the following is most descriptive of ionic and covalent?
a. Types of bonding in which the electrons are shared
b. Types of bonding in which the electrons are swapped
c. Types of bonding
d. Types of bonding only found in reactions in which H+ is produced

ANS:  C

  1. An electrolyte
a. dissociates into ions.
b. yields only cations.
c. always yields H+ and lowers pH.
d. always removes H+ and increases pH.

ANS:  A

  1. A catalyst
a. is an H+-yielding molecule.
b. is an acid.
c. is an alkali.
d. increases the speed of a chemical reaction.

ANS:  D

  1. Which of the following is most descriptive of the function of an enzyme?
a. Neutralization
b. Ionization
c. Catalyst
d. pH

ANS:  C

  1. A patient with a blood pH of 7.28
a. has an excess of H+.
b. has a blood pH that is within normal limits.
c. is alkalotic.
d. has a blood pH that indicates a deficiency of acid.

ANS:  A

  1. A solution with a pH of 8
a. is more acidic than blood.
b. is more acidic than stomach contents.
c. has more H+ than urine.
d. is more alkaline than blood.

ANS:  D

  1. The pH of urine
a. is more alkaline than blood.
b. is always acidic.
c. can be acidic or alkaline.
d. is more acidic than stomach contents.

ANS:  C

  1. The addition of H+ to blood
a. increases blood pH.
b. makes the blood more acidic.
c. makes the blood more alkaline.
d. changes the blood pH from 7.4 to 7.8.

ANS:  B

  1. Blood is called a colloidal suspension because
a. it has a pH of 7.4.
b. it is alkaline.
c. of the suspended plasma proteins.
d. of the sodium and chloride ions

ANS:  C

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