Test Bank 8th Response edition Ebersole Needs and Toward Aging Human Healthy

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Sample Provided Below:

Chapter 03: Theories of Aging

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse is aware the theory of aging most likely to explain why the older population is at risk for autoimmune disorder is known as:
a. cross-link theory
b. free radical theory
c. stochastic theory
d. immunity theory

ANS: D
The immunity theory proposes that cellular errors in the immune system have been found to lead to an auto-aggressive phenomenon in which normal cells are misidentified as alien and are destroyed by the body’s own immune system. This phenomenon is used to explain the increase of autoimmune disorders as we age. The cross-link theory describes aging in terms of the accumulation of errors of cross-linking or stiffening of proteins in the body. The free radical theory describes free radical errors as the result of random damage from free radicals. The stochastic theory is a group of theories that propose that aging is an accumulation of errors in the synthesis of cellular DNA and RNA, which are the building blocks of the cell. Immunity is a nonstochastic theory.

DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. The family member of a patient asks if vitamin C will prevent aging. In formulating an appropriate response, the nurse considers the:
a. Free radical theory
b. Immunity theory
c. Clinker theory
d. Continuity theory

ANS: A
The free radical theory posits that aging is a result of random damage from free radicals. Research is ongoing on the ability of substances with antioxidant effects to counter the actions of free radicals. Vitamins such a Vitamin C are thought to have antioxidant features and act as a free radical scavenger. The immunity theory posits that the cells of the immune system become progressively more diversified with age and lose self-regulatory ability. The use of vitamin C is not associated with this theory. There is no such theory as the clinker theory. The continuity theory is a sociological theory that deals with the tendency of individuals to develop and maintain consistent patterns of behavior throughout their lives.

DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. The nurse implements the concepts of the activity theory of aging when instructing the older autoimmune suppressed client to:
a. continue her daily walking routine
b. curtail further increases in physical activity
c. document preferred end-of-life interventions
d. avoid exposing herself to crowds

ANS: A
The activity theory states that successful aging equals active aging, which is related to the person’s need to maintain a productive life for it to be a happy life. Curtailing increases in physical activity is diametrically opposite to continuing a daily walking routine and contrary to the tenets of the activity theory. End of life decisions and avoiding exposure to crowds are not related to the activity theory since they do not directly affect the productiveness of a client’s life.

DIF: Cognitive level: Application TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. When considering Erikson’s developmental stages, the task for later life is referred to as:
a. ego maturation vs. stagnation
b. ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
c. generativity
d. ego integrity

ANS: D
Erikson’s last developmental stage is ego integrity. Ego maturation vs. stagnation is not one of Erikson’s stages. Ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation is not one of Erikson’s stages; it is one of Peck’s developmental stages. Peck expanded on the work of Erikson. Generativity is Erikson’s developmental stage for middle age.

DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. When asked if taking herbal supplements will help slow down the aging process, the nurse bases the response given on the:
a. Cross-link theory
b. Error theory
c. Free radical theory
d. Nutrition theory

ANS: C
The free radical theory states that aging occurs as a result of random damage from free radicals. Research is ongoing on the ability of substances with antioxidant effects to counter the actions of free radicals. The cross-link theory describes aging in terms of the accumulation of errors of cross-linking or stiffening of proteins in the body. The error theory is actually a category of theories and not a theory itself. The nutrition theory is not one of the theories of aging.

DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance
a
6. A community health nurse provides an annual flu prevention workshop at a local senior center. The activities include a lecture on preventing infections, which includes hand washing and limiting exposure to individuals who are ill, as well as an influenza immunization clinic. The nurse is basing her activities on what theory of aging?
a. Wear and tear
b. Cross-link
c. Immunity
d. Free radical

ANS: C
The immunity theory of aging describes changes in cells of the immune system, which make an older person more susceptible to infection. Prevention of infection is very important in older adults and can be accomplished by education and immunization. Wear and tear, cross-link, and free radical are incorrect because none of these theories of aging deal with prevention of infection.

DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching and Learning
MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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