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Elaine U. Polan RNC, MS, PhD
Daphne R. Taylor RN, MS

ISBN-13: 978-0-8036-2316-3

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Chapter 2: Culture

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. Which of the following is not a function of culture?
a. Guides the way we communicate
b. Determines our selection of health-care options
c. Determines what we can achieve
d. Guides our interpretation of illness

____ 2. The purpose of transcultural nursing is to:
a. Decrease the need for hospitalization
b. Promote patient satisfaction
c. Increase home-care effectiveness
d. Promote dependency

____ 3. The way we view social concerns and problems in the culture is termed cultural:
a. Beliefs
b. Values
c. Clarification
d. Sensitivity

____ 4. The way we greet each other within a culture is an example of:
a. Folkways
b. Mores
c. Laws
d. Sanctions

____ 5. Race categorizes the person by:
a. Religion
b. Physical characteristics
c. Disease susceptibility
d. Financial status

____ 6. The theory that there are no pure races is based on:
a. Discovery of blood transfusion
b. Common blood groups
c. Contamination
d. Migration

____ 7. Learning about the patient’s ancestry is termed cultural:
a. Awareness
b. Sensitivity
c. Mores
d. Diversity

____ 8. The health-care worker who believes that his or her values and ways of life are superior to those of the patient is practicing:
a. Ethnocentrism
b. Cultural awareness
c. Cultural sensitivity
d. Cultural mores

____ 9. When a person migrates to another country and takes on the practices of the dominant culture, this is considered:
a. Assimilation
b. Individualism
c. Paternalism
d. Ethnocentrism

____ 10. A 60-year-old Hispanic patient is admitted to the hospital. When caring for this patient, you would be sensitive to his belief of:
a. Ramadan
b. Hot and cold
c. Fasting
d. Paganism

____ 11. Which of the following cultural groups prefer same-sex health-care providers?
a. Hispanics
b. African Americans
c. Asians
d. Arabs

____ 12. Downcast eyes during communication is a sign of respect in which of the following cultural groups?
a. Asians
b. European Americans
c. Native Americans
d. Pacific Islanders

____ 13. A 70-year-old patient admitted to the nursing home speaks with a distinct accent. To determine his cultural or ethnic origin, you would:
a. Assume this based on his accent
b. Assume this based on his name
c. Assume this based on his religion
d. Ask him directly

____ 14. In caring for patients from different cultures, the nurse must understand that culture is:
a. Our learned pattern of behavior
b. The motivating principle behind all our thinking
c. Less dominant as we age
d. Irrelevant in planning a person’s health needs

____ 15. Failure to understand and develop cultural awareness may lead to:
a. A misperception of a person’s feelings and responses
b. Culturally congruent care
c. Effective cultural communication
d. Adaptation of a new culture

____ 16. Deeply embedded feelings that help individuals determine what is good or bad, right or wrong are referred to as:
a. Mores
b. Norms
c. Folkways
d. Values

____ 17. Differences in skin color as seen in different races are thought to be the result of differences in:
a. Climate and skin pigmentation
b. Diet and genetics
c. Exercise and skin pigmentation
d. Gender and genetics

____ 18. The best time to introduce racial and ethnic tolerance is at:
a. Adulthood
b. Adolescence
c. Early childhood
d. Middle age

____ 19. Mrs. Gonzolas is 10 weeks pregnant, and she tells the nurse that she has not had a visit to a medical doctor. She explains that her people prefer to use a parteras for pregnancy and delivery. Which of the following responses is most culturally sensitive?
a. “You should have more confidence in our physicians on staff.”
b. “I would strongly suggest that you consider using a medical doctor who has specialized in pregnancy.”
c. “It is your decision, and anything I can do to assist you please let me know.”
d. “The maternal and infant mortality rates are lower in the United States compared to other countries that do not use trained medical doctors.”

____ 20. The nurse notices that a Jewish patient on her unit is in his room lighting a Shabbat candle on Friday night. The culturally sensitive response by the nurse would be:
a. “You are not permitted to have lit candles in this facility.”
b. “The fire code prohibits anyone from doing this in his or her room.”
c. “Didn’t you realize that you could cause a serious fire in the facility?”
d. “Let me find out if you can light this candle in the chapel downstairs.”

____ 21. The cultural group that tries to avoid direct eye contact with elders is:
a. Arab
b. Asian
c. Native American
d. European

____ 22. A young, Jewish male, is hospitalized following an auto accident. He sustained multiple fractures and bruises. One evening the caregiver notes that he has not eaten his dinner meal of roast pork, vegetables, roll and butter, salad, and milk. Which statement is most appropriate?
a. “I guess you don’t like this meal.”
b. “You need to eat your meat and drink the milk. The proteins will help you heal.”
c. “It must be difficult to be in the hospital and away from family and friends.”
d. “Do you follow Kosher dietary laws? If so, I will let the dietician know your special needs.”

____ 23. You would expect a female from which of the following cultures listed below to be more comfortable having a female physician examine her:
a. Asian
b. Japanese
c. Arab
d. Latin American

____ 24. When caring for a patient from a different culture, the health-care worker should respect the fact that:
a. An individual’s decisions are always determined by his or her culture.
b. Culture totally defines one’s health-care needs.
c. Food habits are always controlled by culture.
d. Male and female roles are often influenced by culture.

____ 25. The theory of transcultural nursing was proposed by:
a. Jean Watson
b. Abraham Maslow
c. Jean Piaget
d. Madeline Lenninger

____ 26. Hispanic American culture is derived from which group of people:
a. Central American
b. Native American
c. Indian American
d. Chinese American

____ 27. In which culture is talking loudly considered disrespectful?
a. Central American
b. Native American
c. Indian American
d. Chinese American

____ 28. An example of cultural-specific care is evidenced when the nurse recognizes that the Orthodox Jewish client needs:
a. Time to light candles on the Sabbath
b. To be assimilated into the melting pot
c. Evidenced-based information
d. Partnering with caregivers of similar beliefs

____ 29. A client refuses to have any chemotherapy to treat his confirmed malignancy. He tells the nurse that his family is bringing him some herbal potion that is used back in his country. He is convinced that this will cure him. The nurse’s best response is
a. “This is the 21st century, we have better medicines here.”
b. “Do you really want to die?”
c. “Can you describe what this potion is made of?”
d. “I doubt that some old remedy can really heal you.”

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ 30. Gender roles remain constant across all cultures.

____ 31. Pain has both personal and cultural meanings and expressions.

____ 32. Religion and culture are the same.

____ 33. The nurse teaches health-care workers to be careful not to become ethnocentric.

Ch02
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: C
Individual achievement is based on many factors—culture being just one of them.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

2. ANS: B
Transcultural nursing reaches globally, in that it promotes the concept of “one world, many cultures.”

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

3. ANS: D
To correctly view social concerns, one must be sensitive to the cultural dynamics of the people.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

4. ANS: A
Different cultures use different methods to greet one another, called folkways.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

5. ANS: B
There are some distinctive physical characteristics common to each race.

PTS: 1
KEY: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity | Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment

6. ANS: D
In-breeding and migration are thought to have eliminated anything such as a pure race.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

7. ANS: A
Cultural awareness refers to becoming familiar with another person’s ancestry and history. This helps one understand and not offend another individual.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

8. ANS: A
Tolerance and understanding of someone’s culture and practice avoid ethnocentrism.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

9. ANS: A
Assimilation is the practice of adopting new cultural practices common to other cultures.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

10. ANS: B
Many Hispanics believe that illness is caused by an imbalance in hot and cold.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

11. ANS: D
Many Arab patients prefer same-sex health-care providers. The preference is related to their modesty and religious beliefs.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

12. ANS: A
Respect is a key component in the Asian culture, and it can be shown by not looking directly into another person’s eyes.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

13. ANS: D
To be sure of a person’s cultural background, one should ask and not assume.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

14. ANS: A
Understanding different cultures helps the health-care worker better understand how the patient views health and illness.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

15. ANS: A
The lack of cultural awareness may result in a misunderstanding of a patient’s feelings and responses.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

16. ANS: D
Values are deeply embedded feelings that form the foundation and direction for one’s actions and feelings.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

17. ANS: A
Theorists ascribe differences in skin color to adaptation to physical elements, such as climate, which increases skin pigmentation.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

18. ANS: C
To foster racial and ethnic tolerance, prejudice should be introduced at an early age.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

19. ANS: C
The nurse is correct to support the decision of the patient.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

20. ANS: D
The nurse tries to support the needs and practices of her patient.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

21. ANS: B
Asians consider direct eye contact with their elders as a disrespectful action.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

22. ANS: D
It is important to determine and support special cultural needs of all persons.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

23. ANS: C
Modesty and certain beliefs would make a female physician preferred for a female Arab patient.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

24. ANS: D
Male and female roles are influenced by cultural beliefs.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

25. ANS: D
Madeline Lenninger was credited with the theory of transcultural nursing.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

26. ANS: A
Hispanic Americans are a diverse group made up of several groups, including Puerto Rican, Mexican, and Central American people.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

27. ANS: B
Loud talking is considered rude by Native Americans.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

28. ANS: A
Lighting candles on Sabbath is a cultural specific need of Orthodox Jews.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

29. ANS: C
Caregivers must take into account a client’s specific cultural remedies.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

TRUE/FALSE

30. ANS: F
Different cultures have different gender roles.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

31. ANS: T
Each person should be evaluated for his or her response and expression to pain, as it will vary with individuals and cultural background.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Planning | Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

32. ANS: F
Religion is a specific system of beliefs and worship, whereas culture is learned patterns of behavior related to past generations.

PTS: 1 KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Assessment | Client Needs: Evaluation

33. ANS: T
Health-care workers should not become ethnocentric and believe that their culture and values are superior to others.

PTS: 1
KEY: Integrated Processes: Nursing Process: Implementation | Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

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